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but it was nevertheless held in Fishburn v. Hollingshead, in 1891, by Justice Stirling, that a foreign work must comply with the provisions of the copyright acts applicable, as to registration and delivery, to works first produced in the United Kingdom, since a foreign work was entitled only to the protection afforded to natives. In Hanfstaengl v. Holloway, in 1893, Justice Charles took the opposite view, and he was supported by the Court of Appeal in Hanfstaengl v. American Tobacco Company, in 1894, which decided finally that the acts of 1842 and 1844 were repealed as to foreign works and that registration and deposit of a foreign work were unnecessary. The decision of the Court of Appeal in 1908, in Sarpy v. Holland, that notice of reservation may be in foreign languages, confirmed the provisions that no formalities beyond those in the country of origin were requisite.

With the development of the International Copy- Effect of right Union, through the Berne convention of 1886, Berne copyright relations between the leading countries convention became more largely and truly international, and most of the existing treaties of the unionist countries were superseded by the international convention proper. In accordance, however, with the terms of the convention, treaties broader than the provisions of the convention might still remain in force or be later negotiated between one country and another, and such conventions, on the "most favored nation basis or otherwise, have in fact been negotiated, especially by Germany, within the present century. The arrangement for protection of foreign works in unionist and other countries, under special treaties, will be found in succeeding chapters on copyright in foreign countries, where treaties broader than the international convention or made since 1900 are also scheduled. The main features of international

copyright arrangements are tabulated in condensed form in the conspectus of copyright by countries given

in the preliminary pages. International At the time of the Universal Exposition in Paris in literary

1878, the French Société des Gens de Lettres issued congresses

invitations for an International Literary Congress, which was held in Paris, under the presidency of Victor Hugo, commencing June 4, 1878. From this came the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which held subsequent congresses at London in 1879, at Lisbon in 1880, at Vienna in 1881, at Rome in 1882, at Amsterdam in 1883, at Brussels in 1884, and at Antwerp in 1885, at which the extension of international copyright was discussed and advo

cated. Fundamental The Congress at Antwerp, in 1885, ratified the proposition

following proposition: “The author's right in his work constitutes an inherent right of property. The

law does not create, but merely regulates it." Preliminary Partly, at the initiative of this association and at official con- the invitation of the Swiss government, a preliminference, 1883

ary conference of official representatives of the several nations was held at Berne in September, 1883, at which the following draft, submitted by the International Literary and Artistic Association, was substantially adopted as the basis for a general convention on the part of civilized nations:

1. The authors of literary or artistic works published, represented, or executed in one of the contracting States, shall enjoy, upon the sole condition of accomplishing the formalities required by the laws of that State, the same rights for the protection of their works in the other States of the Union, whatever the nationality of the authors may be, as are enjoyed by natives of the States.

"2. The term literary or artistic works comprises books, pamphlets, and all other writings; dramatic Propositions and dramatico-musical works; musical compositions, of 1883 with or without words, and arrangements of music; drawings, paintings, sculptures, engravings, lithographs, maps, plans, scientific sketches, and generally all other literary, artistic, and scientific works whatsoever, which may be published by any system of impression or reproduction whatsoever.

'3. The rights of authors extend to manuscript or unpublished works.

4. The legal representatives and assignees of authors shall enjoy in all respects the same rights as are awarded by this convention to authors themselves.

“5. The subjects of one of the contracting States shall enjoy in all the other States of the Union during the subsistence of their rights in their original works the exclusive right of translation. This right comprises the right of publication, representation, or execution.

“6. Authorized translations are protected in the same manner as original works. When the translation is of a work which has become public property, the translator cannot prevent the work from being translated by others.

7. In the case of the infringement of the above provisions, the courts having jurisdiction will apply the laws enacted by their respective legislatures, just as if the infringement had been committed to the prejudice of a native. Adaptation shall be considered piracy, and treated in the same manner.

8. This convention applies to all works that have not yet become public property in the country in which they were first published at the time of coming into force of the convention.

9. The States of the Union reserve to themselves the right of entering into separate agreements among

themselves for the protection of literary or artistic works, provided that such agreements are not contrary to any of the provisions of the present convention.

“10. A Central International Office shall be established, at which shall be deposited by the Governments of the States of the Union the laws, decrees, and regulations affecting the rights of authors which have already been or shall hereafter be promulgated in any of the said Governments. This office shall collect the laws, etc., and publish a periodical print in the French language, in which shall be contained all the documents and information necessary to be

made known to the parties interested." First official This draft, as adopted, was submitted by the Swiss conference, government to the first formal international confer1884

ence for the protection of the rights of authors, held at Berne from September 8 to 19, 1884. At this conference representatives from thirteen countries were present — Austria, Belgium, Costa Rica, France, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Holland, Italy, Salvador, Sweden and Norway, and Switzerland; and the result of their deliberations was a new "draft convention for the creation of a general union for the protection of the rights of authors," similar to the Universal Postal Union, in the following form:

“ I. Authors placing themselves within the jurisdiction of the contracting countries will be afforded protection for their works, whether in print or manuscript, and will have all the advantages of the laws of the different nations embraced in the Union.

2. These privileges will be dependent upon the carrying out of the conditions and formalities prescribed by the legislation of the author's native country, or of the country in which he chooses to first publish his work, such country being, of course, one of those included in the convention.

3. These stipulations apply alike to editors and authors of literary works, as well as to works of art published or created in any country of the Union.

“4. Authors within the jurisdictionof the Union will enjoy in all the countries the exclusive rights of translation of their works during a period of ten years after publication in any one country of the Union of an authorized translation.

“5. It is proposed that it shall be made legal to publish extracts from works which have appeared in any country of the Union, provided that such publications are adapted for teaching or have a scientific character. The reciprocal publication of books composed of fragments of various authors will also be permitted. It will be an indispensable condition, however, that the source of such extracts shall at all times be acknowledged.

6. On the other hand, it will be unlawful to publish, without special permission of the holder of the copyright, any piece of music, in any collection of music used in musical academies.

7. The rights of protection accorded to musical works will prohibit arrangements of music containing fragments from other composers, unless the consent of such composer be first obtained."

A second international conference was held at Second offiBerne from September 7 to 18, 1885, for the further cial conferconsideration of the project. This was participated in ence, 1885 by representatives from sixteen countries, – Argentina, Belgium, Costa Rica, France, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Honduras, Holland, Italy, Paraguay, Sweden and Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and Tunis. The United States was also represented at that conference by a “listening delegate,” Boyd Winchester, then the United States minister at Berne.

The negotiations at Berne culminated at the third

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