Lapas attēli

eral countries, as Belgium, specify however "the exclusive right of making arrangements on motives of the original composition," Brazil, Luxemburg, Mexico, Nicaragua and Tunis following this precedent in nearly identical language. Germany specifically protects the “sole right of making extracts from musical works and arranging for orchestra or in parts.” Spain specifies among its prohibitions “the total or partial publication of melodies, with or without accompaniment, transposed or arranged for other instruments or with different words." Hungary specifies that “every arrangement of a musical work, published without the consent of the author, which cannot be considered as a composition in itself,” is an infringement. Where, however, the author of a work permits or licenses an adaptation or arrangement, or an original adaptation or arrangement is made from a work in the public domain, that is properly a separate subject of copyright, as is specified in the statutes of Colombia, to the effect that "variations, etc., on a theme or air which is public property, constitutes property. Transpositions are similar to translations of literary subjects."

Dramatic and musical works were specifically included under the protection of the International Copyright Convention of Berne, 1886, by the definition in article IV of “literary and artistic works” as including “dramatic or dramatico-musical works; musical compositions with or without words." In the Berlin convention, 1908, the same general term was defined in article 2 as including “dramatic or dramatico-musical works; choregraphic works and pantomimes, the stage directions ('mise en scène') of which are fixed in writing or otherwise; musical compositions with or without words.” “Adaptations, arrangements of music, etc., are specially included,

International definitions

in the phraseology of article X of the convention of 1886, “amongst the illicit reproductions to which the present convention applies, when they are only the reproduction of a particular work, in the same form, or in another form, with non-essential alterations, or abridgments, so made as not to confer the character of a new original work"; and practically the same language is repeated in article 12 of the convention of 1908. On the other hand, “adaptations, arrangements of music,” etc., are protected as original works without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work, in article 2 of the convention of 1908.

The German law of 1901 permits, however, extract from or other use of musical compositions in adaptations or arrangement under specified circumstances, as for family, social or other gratuitous performance, under the limitations of the law, which exception seems to be permitted also under the law of 1910.

Throughout the countries of the International National Copyright Union, first publication in any of these formalities countries and compliance with its formalities entitle the author to playright as well as copyright in all the other countries within the Union, with some exceptions to be noted. Thus in Switzerland the conditions of performance must be given at the head of the printed play; and the law stipulates that the author may not require as royalty more than two per cent of the gross profits, and a performance at which the admission fee is reckoned to cover only cost of production or a performance for charitable purposes, is not considered an infringement of playright. In Italy a play performed, but not printed and published, must be submitted in manuscript for inspection within three months of first performance, together with a declaration reserving the playright; a printed book or play should be deposited with accompanying

notice of reservation within three months, or the proprietor cannot obtain damages until such deposit, and failure to deposit within ten years abandons copyright protection. Italian proprietors of music sometimes refrain from printing and publishing music, with the intent of maintaining copyright

and playright indefinitely. Specific In Luxemburg and Sweden, reservation of playreservations right must be stated on printed copies, as is also the or conditions

case as to music in these countries and in the other countries elsewhere cited. In Sweden, the term for playright is less than for copyright in the printed work, being for life and thirty years only. In Sweden and Norway, the author protecting his rights by first publication in these countries, must be a citizen of one of the countries within the International Copyright Union or must acquire rights through a publisher therein; though in the other countries of the Union, this question of nationality is immaterial. In Norway and Denmark, there must be reservation of right of recitation, but in Norway this lapses in any event at the end of three years, provided the recitation does not take the shape of a dramatic performance. In Holland and the Dutch Indies, reservation of playright must be given, and printing within the country has hitherto been required to protect a published work. In Hungary, the author of a play must give his name on the title-page or in the announcement of the play, and protection is extended to foreigners who have been for two years rate-payers and residents in Hungary, as well as those whose countries have reciprocal relations. In Finland, the author's name and reservation of playright must be given on the printed copy, and protection is extended to foreigners on condition of residence and publication in Finland.

Most of the smaller European countries and many South American countries, including playright under copyright, base protection on reciprocal protection of their citizens in other countries, while protection of performing rights in Brazil requires notice on printed plays of the reservation of royalty for performance. In many oriental countries, as Egypt, China, etc., protection is afforded to some extent in the consular courts.

In the Pan American Union, the Buenos Aires Pan convention of 1910 specifically includes dramatic and American musical works as literary works, without special provisions.





As the international copyright provision with the music"

manufacturing clause was the central feature of the contest

copyright campaign culminating in the law of 1891, so the provision for the control of mechanical music with the compulsory license clause was the central feature of the contest culminating in the act of 1909. This came to be known as the “canned music" fight, and arguments pro and con consumed the greater part of the hearings before the Committees on Patents. The solution finally reached was in the provisos added to the musical subsection (e) of section i of the bill, which in full is as follows:

“(e) To perform the copyrighted work publicly for profit if it be a musical composition and for the purpose of public performance for profit; and for the purposes set forth in subsection (a) hereof, to make any arrangement or setting of it or of the melody of it in any system of notation or any form of record in which the thought of an author may be

recorded and from which it may be read or reproMechanical duced: Provided, That the provisions of this Act, so music

far as they secure copyright controlling the parts of provisos

instruments serving to reproduce mechanically the musical work, shall include only compositions published and copyrighted after this Act goes into effect, and shall not include the works of a foreign author or composer unless the foreign state or nation of which such author or composer is a citizen or subject grants, either by treaty, convention, agreement, or law, to citizens of the United States similar rights: And

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