Lapas attēli

Omission of copyright notice

despite the ad interim registration. When an American-made edition with notice of copyright can be published in America simultaneously with its publication abroad, ad interim protection is of course rendered unnecessary; and such simultaneous publication is the simplest and best practice for publishers to adopt.

It may also be emphasized here that the notice of copyright can be omitted only from foreign-made copies and must be included in the American-made edition. The American publisher desiring to reprint a book published abroad in the English language within sixty days after publication, without consent of the copyright proprietor, must therefore assure himself, by inquiry from the Copyright Office, whether the work has been registered ad interim. The printing of an American copyright notice on the foreign edition in anticipation of the publication of an American-made edition and the deposit of copies thereof within the statutory requirements is a questionable practice, as a failure to publish Americanmade copies in the United States, because of defective publishing arrangements or a printers' or binders' strike, would make such notice a false notice of copyright. The copyright term in the case of such foreign work in the English language dates, it would seem, from the date of publication abroad rather than from the date of publication of the American-made edition; but this would be of importance only toward the expiration of the original term and in connection with the renewal term.

Ad interim protection seems to be confined exclusively to a book as such, and therefore does not apply to articles in periodicals.

It should be noted that an American author publishing his work abroad is not benefited by either of these provisions respecting foreign works. The pro

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vision regarding works in other languages is speci- American fically confined to a work of foreign origin, that is, authors not not by an American author; and he gains nothing, if

tected his work is in English, from ad interim protection. Thus an American author publishing his work first in German in Berlin, must copyright and deposit an American-made edition of his German text in this country to obtain American protection, without which his work in German could be imported into this country without his consent, and an independent translation of his text into English and its publication in America could not be prevented.

In view of the exact prescription of the method of Exact consecuring copyright, unless the statute is precisely formity recomplied with the copyright is not valid. Said Judge

quired in

formalities Sawyer, in 1875, in Parkinson v. Laselle: “There is no possible room for construction here. The statute says no right shall attach until these acts have been performed; and the court cannot say, in the face of this express negative provision, that a right shall attach unless they are performed. Until the performance as prescribed, there is no right acquired under the statute that can be violated." And in the case of the play "Shaughraun," Boucicault v. Hart, in 1875, Justice Hunt held, as regards copyrights in general:“Two acts are by the statute made necessary to be performed, and we can no more take it upon ourselves to say that the latter is not an indispensable requisite to a copyright than we can say it of the former.” The Supreme Court laid down this general doctrine in Wheaton v. Peters, in reference to the statutes of 1790 and 1802, and the later statutes are most explicit on this point. In the same case of Wheaton v. Peters, Justice McLean, in delivering the judgment of the Supreme Court, held that while the right "accrues," so that it may be protected in

chancery, on compliance with the first requirement of the prescribed process, it must be perfected by complying with the other requisites before a suit at

law for violation of copyright can be maintained. Expunging

A false or unjustifiable entry of copyright may be from registry expunged from the registry by court order, as was

done in the English case Re Share Certificate Book in

1908. British for The statutory formalities of copyright in other malities countries vary greatly. In Great Britain copyright has

been secured by first (or simultaneous) publication within the British dominions or under the “international copyright act." The law provided that a copy of the best edition of a book must be deposited in the British Museum, this giving basis for proof of publication, which deposit must be made within one month after publication if published within London, three months elsewhere in the United Kingdom, and one year in other parts of the British dominions; the failure to deposit did not forfeit copyright, but involved a fine; but under the international copyright provisions, deposit in the British Museum of a colonial or foreign work was not required, though useful as prima facie evidence of publication. Four other copies of domestic books must be supplied to the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh and Dublin if demanded within twelve months from publication. Registration at Stationers' Hall was necessary for books only as a prerequisite to an action at law against infringement, but was obligatory in the case of paintings, drawings and photographs. Copyright notice on a book was not required except to reserve the right of representation of a dramatic work, etc., though it has been customary for English publishers to print the phrase "All rights reserved" as the equivalent to the copyright notice. But copyright notice was re

quired to protect sculpture, engravings and musical compositions and in respect to oral lectures.

The new British code bases copyright for all pub- The new lished works on first publication within the parts of British code His Majesty's dominions to which this Act extends" or as provided for in colonial or international arrangements copyright of unpublished works depending upon British citizenship or residence at the time of making. Delivery of copies to the British Museum and on demand to the other libraries is required from the publisher of every book published in the United Kingdom, but on penalty of five pounds and the value of the book and not of forfeiture of copyright. The National Library of Wales is entitled to a sixth copy, in prescribed classes of books. Registration is no longer made a condition or circumstance of copyright.

Most of the British colonies have followed the precedent of the mother country, with slight variation, in their domestic legislation. Canada and Newfoundland, following the precedent of the United States, require copyright notice in statutory form,

France requires deposit of two copies upon publi- Other cation, and registration is required prior to a suit for countries infringement. Germany requires the registration of the name of the author of anonymous or pseudonymous works as the condition for copyright, but otherwise grants copyright practically as natural right without requiring formalities. The greater number of copyright countries do not impose any formalities except for specific privileges as the right of translation, of representation or of reproduction in the case of periodical contributions; or for special subjects as works of art, musical compositions, telegraphic messages, where these are protected, and oral lectures. Deposit of copies is, however, generally re

quired, either before putting the book on the market or before circulation, or upon publication, or else within a specified time after publication, ranging from ten days in the case of Greece to two years in the case of Brazil, while in several countries no specific time is mentioned. In Italy, if no deposit of a registered work is made within ten years, the copyright is considered to be abandoned. The number of copies required varies in the several countries from one to six. In some countries specific formalities are required to establish the beginning of the term of protection for collective or posthumous works, etc., or in connection with the disclosure of the author's name on anonymous or pseudonymous works. Spain, Colombia and Panama, and Costa Rica have a curious provision that if a work is not registered within one year from publication the copyright is forfeited for ten years, at the end of which period it may be recovered by registration. Canada and Newfoundland, following the United States precedent, Australia, Holland and the Dutch colonies, and Siam require manufacture within the country. In several countries penalty for failure to deposit is provided, the limit being usually the value of a book and a sum not exceeding £5, or in France 300 francs. The deposit of a photograph or sketch of a work of art is in many countries required for purposes of identification.

International copyright throughout the countries of the International Copyright Union and the Pan American Union, if the Berlin and Buenos Aires conventions are ratified throughout, will depend, as now it depends for most countries, entirely on the formalities in the country of origin.

International provisions

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