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fragment is not a work, and a part of a work cannot Fragment be copyrighted, especially as this would nullify the not de

positable manufacturing clause, as set forth in the opinion of the Attorney-General, February 9, 1910.

A work may be published and deposited in type- Type-writwriting copies, as set forth in the opinion of the ing publica

tion and Attorney-General of May 2, 1910, but this will not

deposit operate to avoid the manufacturing clause when the work is published in print.

The completion of the copyright by deposit of Legal copies is covered by the provision (sec. 12): “That provisions after copyright has been secured by publication of the work with the notice of copyright as provided in section nine of this Act, there shall be promptly deposited in the Copyright Office or in the mail addressed to the Register of Copyrights, Washington, District of Columbia, two complete copies of the best edition thereof then published, which copies, if the work be a book or periodical, shall have been produced in accordance with the manufacturing provisions specified in section fifteen of this Act; or if such work be a contribution to a periodical, for which contribution special registration is requested, one copy of the issue or issues containing such contribution; or if the work is not reproduced in copies for sale, there shall be deposited the copy, print, photograph, or other identifying reproduction provided by section eleven of this Act, such copies or copy, print, photograph, or other reproduction to be accompanied in each case by a claim of copyright. No action or proceeding shall be maintained for infringement of copyright in any work until the provisions of this Act with respect to the deposit of copies and registration of such work shall have been complied with."

In case of failure to deposit, the law of 1909 provides for penalties and finally voiding of the copy

Voiding by right, as follows (sec. 13): “That should the copies failure to

called for by section twelve of this Act not be deposit

promptly deposited as herein provided, the Register of Copyrights may at any time after the publication of the work, upon actual notice, require the proprietor of the copyright to deposit them, and after the said demand shall have been made, in default of the deposit copies of the work within three months from any part of the United States, except an outlying territorial possession of the United States, or within six months from any outlying territorial possession of the United States, or from any foreign country, the proprietor of the copyright shall be liable to a fine of one hundred dollars and to pay to the Library of Congress twice the amount of the retail price of the best edition of the work, and the copyright shall

become void." Forfeiture In the case of a printed book or periodical or of a by false

lithograph or photo-engraving, the copies deposited affidavit

must be manufactured in America, as set forth in the manufacturing provision (sec. 15) as verified in the case of a book by affidavit (sec. 16) separately treated hereafter, and the book copyright is forfeited (sec. 17) in the event of false affidavit. Thus failure to deposit, and, in the case of books, false affidavit as to American manufacture, are the two lapses of formalities

which work forfeiture of copyright. Works not In the case of works not reproduced for sale, copyreproduced right may be secured under the provision (sec. II):

“That copyright may also be had of the works of an author of which copies are not reproduced for sale, by the deposit, with claim of copyright, of one complete copy of such work if it be a lecture or similar production or a dramatic or musical composition; of a photographic print if the work be a photograph; of a photograph or other identifying reproduction thereof if it be a work of art or a plastic work or drawing. But the privilege of registration of copyright secured hereunder shall not exempt the copyright proprietor from the deposit copies under sections twelve and thirteen of this Act where the work is later reproduced in copies for sale." The entire work should in each case be deposited (C. O. Rule 18) and not a mere outline, epitome or scenario; and the copy should be in convenient form, clean and legible, with the leaves securely fastened together, and should bear the title of the work exactly as given in the application.

It should be noted that in this class of copyright, Second which is a common law copyright fortified by statu- registration tory protection, an ideal example of copyright law, double registration is required in case the unpublished copyrighted work is published, requiring one application fee and deposit of one identifying copy for the unpublished work and a second application fee and deposit of two copies promptly after publication.

It should be noted that the deposit copies may be Free transdeposited either in the Copyright Office or "in the portation in

mail mail addressed to the register of copyrights," and it is provided (sec. 14): “That the postmaster to whom are delivered the articles deposited as provided in sections eleven and twelve of this Act shall, if requested, give a receipt therefor and shall mail them to their destination without cost to the copyright claimant.” Franking labels are not required and are no longer issued by the Copyright Office. Deposit copies, and all mail matter, should be addressed to the “Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.," and not to any person by name.

Thus even if the deposit copies should not reach Loss in Washington, as in case they were burned in the mail, mail

Foreign works

the copyright proprietor can validate his claim by production of the postmaster's receipt in lieu of deposit copies.

In respect to foreign works, it should be noted that "the original text of a work of foreign origin in a language or languages other than English," may

be formally copyrighted and fully protected by registration under the same formalities as domestic works except that the deposit copies need not be manufactured within the United States, thus giving the author the exclusive right of translation. Copies published for use in America must of course bear the copyright notice. A translation into English from such text cannot be copyrighted unless the deposit copies of the English translation are manufactured within the United States; and this holds true also in respect to translations into a language other than English, as it is only “the original text” which can be copyrighted without American manufacture.

In respect to books published abroad in the English language, ad interim protection is assured by the provision (sec. 21): “That in the case of a book published abroad in the English language before publication in this country, the deposit in the Copyright Office, not later than thirty days after its publication abroad, of one complete copy of the foreign edition, with a request for the reservation of the copyright and a statement of the name and nationality of the author and of the copyright proprietor and of the date of publication of the said book, shall secure to the author or proprietor an ad interim copyright, which shall have all the force and effect given to copyright by this Act, and shall endure until the expiration of thirty days after such deposit in the Copyright Office."

On such works the provisional copyright is made permanent under the provision (sec. 22): “That

Ad interim deposit

whenever within the period of such ad interim pro- Completion tection an authorized edition of such book shall be of ad interim

copyright published within the United States, in accordance with the manufacturing provisions specified in section fifteen of this Act, and whenever the provisions of this Act as to deposit of copies, registration, filing of affidavit, and the printing of the copyright notice shall have been duly complied with, the copyright shall be extended to endure in such book for the full term elsewhere provided in this Act."

The ad interim provision requires the same formalities and fee as in the case of domestic works, except that only one copy of the foreign work in English need be deposited, and that this deposit copy need not contain the statutory notice of American copyright. The claimant is given thirty days after publication abroad in which to request reservation and a second thirty days after deposit of the foreign copy within which to publish or cause to be published an edition manufactured in America and thus to complete his copyright. This gives a period of ad interim protection, ranging from thirty days to sixty days, within which to obtain permanent copyright, the exact period depending upon the number of days elapsing after publication before deposit of the foreign copy in the Copyright Office. Thus a copy deposited on the day of publication will have thirty days in all within which to secure permanent copyright by the publication of the American-made edition, while a copy deposited on the thirtieth day after publication will have sixty days in all; but the failure to deposit the foreign copy within thirty days after publication, or the failure to publish an Americanmade edition within thirty days after such deposit, will forfeit the right to obtain copyright protection and throw the foreign work into the public domain,

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