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Magyars, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, show large proportions employed in the woolen and worsted goods industry. Engfish show considerably larger proportions employed in the manufacture of cotton goods than the other races and Germans the highest percentage in domestic service. Only one race, the Irish, shows no females in the woolen and worsted industry, and no Hebrews, North Italians, Magyars, or Poles are employed in manufacturing cotton goods. No Irish, North Italians, Poles, or Slovaks are in domestic service.
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.
The extent to which the male heads of families studied were regularly employed, together with their average annual earnings, are set forth in the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race, the proportion of husbands in the households studied who are at work.
The preceding table shows that 97.3 per cent of the 559 husbands studied are working, averaging $565 apiece yearly: It will be noted that all the native-born of foreign father, English, Hebrews, and Slovaks, and over 91 per cent of each other race report the husbands at work. The highest average earnings, $1,143, are reported by the native-born of German father and the lowest, $309, by the Poles. It will also be noted that the highest average earnings, ranging from $664, reported by theforeign-born Irish, to the $1,143 of the native-born of German father, are reported by the past immigrant and nativeborn races, the earnings of the recent immigrant races ranging from the $309 reported by the Poles to the $625 averaged by the Hebrews.
The range in the earnings per year of male heads of families is shown in the following table, by general nativity and race:
TABLE 226.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.
Total native-born of foreign father
a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.
Not computed, owing to small number involved.
TABLE 227.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.)
Native-born of foreign father,
937 836 625 664 584 320 520 309 425 468
8 (a) (a)(a)(a) (a) (a) 17 .0 .0 .021.7 39.1 73.9
46 .0 .0 8.6 15.5 51.7 79.3 9 22
42 2.2 2.219.6 47.8 76.1 91.3 4 10
19 .0 .018. 245.5 72.7 86.4 2 15
26 .0.0 7.7 57.7 92.3 100.0 36 47 50 2.0 26.0 72.0 94.0 100.0 100.0 20 59 81 2.4 4.8 23.870.2 95.2 96.4
9 11 11 (a) (a)(a) (a) (a) (@) 46 130 136 138 .7 8.6 33. 193. 5 97.8 99.3 15 34 44 4.5 4.5 34. 177.3 97.7 100.0
33 150 354 459 503 1.3 6. 1 27.6 65.1) 84.4 92.5
2 8 18 21 .01 .06.124.2 54.5 63.6 33 148 346 441 482 1.4 6.5 29.0 67.7 86.3 94.3
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
In the above table 65.1 per cent get under $600, 84.4 per cent under $800, and small proportions less than $200 or $1,000 or over. These figures are approximately the same as the proportions of the foreignborn, but of the native-born of foreign father 54.5 per cent get less than $800, none less than $200 and 36.4 per cent $1,000 or over. Very great variation is noted in the average earnings of the various races, the Polish and South Italians reporting less than $325, Ruthenians and Slovaks less than $470, the Magyars and North Italians less than $600, and each of the remaining races $625 or over.
The maximum average of $1,143 is reported by the native-born of German father and the next highest average being reported by the English, native-born of Irish father, German, and Irish in order.
Of the races of past immigration of the Hebrews and of the nativeborn of foreign father, the majority get $600 or over, as contrasted with 57.7 per cent to 94 per cent of the other races getting less than $600. None of the North Italians, South Italians, or Slovaks get $1,000 or over and less than 9 per cent of any of the other races of recent immigration, as compared with from 13.6 per cent to 30 per cent of the other races.
This table shows that all the high-paid labor is controlled by the native-born and by the races of past immigration; the South Italians, Magyars, Ruthenians, and Slovaks providing the cheapest class of laborers.
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE
The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over, in the households studied.
TABLE 228.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general
nativity and race of individual.
The above table shows the greatest proportion of males earning under $600 per year, a very small percentage earn under $200 and over $1,000, while 30 per cent earn under $400 per year. Native-born of foreign father show a higher earning capacity than foreign-born, a much higher percentage earning over $1,000 per year than foreignborn. The average yearly earnings for all males shown in the table is $535, native-born of foreign father showing an average of $723 per year as contrasted with $516, which is the average yearly earnings of foreign-born. Germans who are native-born of foreign father show by far the highest average yearly earnings of any of the races. Of the foreign-born English show the highest average yearly earnings, which is $836, and Poles the lowest, which is $294. The percentages show that no North Italians, South Italians, and Slovaks earn over $1,000 a year and very few Ruthenians and Magyars earn above this amount. No English, Germans, Irish, or North Italians earn under $200 per year, while the proportion of English and Germans earning under $400 is very small
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE
The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over, in the households studied.
TABLE 229.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general
nativity and race of individual.
TABLE 230.—Per cent of females 18 years of age or over, earning each specified amount
(approximate) per year, by general nativity.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
The preceding table shows that 15 per cent of females reporting earn under $200 per year, 47.9 per cent earn under $300, 85.3 per cent earn under $400, and 92.3 per cent earn under $500 per year. Foreignborn show a considerably higher proportion earning under each specified amount than native-born of foreign father, the percentage of the foreign-born in each instance being slightly higher than the total percentages for all females shown in the tables. South Italians show a very high proportion earning under $200 per year when compared with the other races given in the table. This race also shows no females earning over $400 per year.
ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.
In the series of tables next presented the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specífied amount. TABLE 231.—Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by
general nativity and race of head of family.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.
One family is included which reports income as “none."]
Of the 618 families studied, 64.7 per cent get under $750, 19.1 per cent $1,000 or over, a considerably lower proportion less than $300, and a still smaller proportion $1,500 or over. These figures reflect closely the proportions of the foreign-born, but of the native-born of foreign father 60 per cent get $1,000 or over and 31.4 per cent get $1,500 or over. None of the persons native-born of Irish father, foreign-born English, Irish, Germans, or North Italians have less than $300, the majority of each of the first three named races having $1,000
The majority of the North Italians get $750 or over, but over 50 per cent of each other recent immigrant races get less than $750.