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well represented, in proportion to population, as persons of any other race, and among their number also is found a large percentage of skilled workmen. They form a law-abiding, industrious, and successful part of the foreign population, and stand high among the races of recent immigration to the city. The English, like the Irish and Scotch, were among the first immigrants to come to the community, but they have supplied only a very small

proportion of the immigration which has come in since 1889. When the worsted, woolen, and cotton mills were being started on a small scale, during the period from 1869 to 1889, the labor of the English weavers, dyers, and finishers was in great demand, and many were induced to come directly from Europe to take up their occupations

. in the community. At no time has English immigration been heavy, and at no time have the English constituted a very strong element in the population numerically. In 1900 there were according to the census returns 600 English in the city. It seems probable that this figure represents an underestimate. The English population in 1909 was estimated at 1,150. In almost all instances the English immigrants have been textile workers, and have come to the community largely for the reason that they could secure employment in an occupation for which they were fitted. Among the immigrants of this race unskilled laborers have been very rare. The English have been fairly successful in their occupations, and have contributed materially to the development of the industries of the city. Like the Germans and Scotch, the English have prospered greatly in the new environment.

The Scotch constituted an important element in the early immigration to the city. Like the English, they came to the community at the time of the opening of the textile mills, and were among the pioneers in the introduction and development of the textile industries. In the later immigration the Scotch played little part, and by 1889 the Scotch immigration had practically ceased. The Scotch immigrants entered the same industries as did the English and Irish immigrants who came to the city during the period from 1869–1889. They were for the most part skilled workers who had done similar work in Scotland. That they have been successful is evidenced by the fact that many of the same woolen, worsted, cotton, and dyeing mills in which they went to work as weavers, spinners, and dyers are now owned by themselves or their descendants.' The Scotch immigration reached its highest point in 1880. In 1909 the total Scotch population was estimated at 600.

Among the more recent immigrants to the community are the Swedes. Swedish immigration began in 1895, when a Swedish coachman came to Community D. Since that date immigration has continued upon a moderate scale. A considerable number of Swedish women have been induced, through the aid of a resident Swedish family, to come to the city as domestic servants. Of the men of this race who have come to the community, some have entered domestic employments and others have secured positions as masons, or tinsmiths, or in other building trades. The Swedish population was 183 in 1900, and had increased to 300 in 1909. The above is a discussion of the immigration of the principal races making up the foreign-born population of Community D.' In 1909 there were in the community 4,200 foreign-born persons of races not



dealt with in the text. The races which compose this group
so many, and so varied, and their numerical representation is, in
most instances, so small, that no definite account can be given of
their immigration. In 1909 Community D had, according to a
conservative estimate, about 45,000 inhabitants, of whom over
35,000, or about 78 per cent, were of foreign birth. A large majority
of all the inhabitants had immigrated from Europe within the pre-
ceding twenty years, At the present time the influx of immigrants
continues undiminished. It is stated that in January, 1909, the
arrivals averaged 14 a day, and that the total was 500 for the month
of February and 300 for the month of March. The diverse indus-
tries, constantly growing, have called for an increasing amount of
unskilled labor, and the demand has been met through immigration.

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An additional insight into the character of recent and past immigration to the community, may be had from the following table, which shows, by race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 219.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of

years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the total number of persons 42.6 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 70.5 per cent under ten, and 90 per cent under twenty years. The South Italians, Magyars, and Poles are the most recent arrivals, the greater proportion of each having been in this country less than five years. The Irish have the longest residence, only 1.4 per cent having been here under five years, 2.7 per cent under ten years, and 16.2 per cent under twenty years. In addition to the Irish the Dutch is the only other race which shows the smaller proportion to have been in the United States under twenty years.


In the following table the population of Community D, in May, 1909, is classified according to general nativity and race:

Estimated population of Community D, May, 1909.
South Italian.
North Italian
Other races.

Total foreign-born.

10, 200 4, 500 4, 200 4,000 3, 500 3, 200 3,000 2, 500 2,000 1, 800 1, 150

700 600

300 4, 200

35, 650

Grand total....

45, 850

The figures of the above table are the result of a careful estimate made in May, 1909. The Thirteenth Federal Census placed the population of the city at 34,773, an increase of 97.2 per cent as compared with the year 1890. It seems remarkable that the population should increase 20 per cent within the past year, but as the estimates in 1909 were made with great care they have retained. The Federal census perhaps applied to a wider range of territory. It appears that of the total population of 45,850 persons in 1909 35,650, or 78 per cent, were of foreign birth. Among the foreign-born, of the races for which the figures are given, the Poles, Irish, Slovaks, Hebrews, Ruthenians, and Magyars, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Swedes, Scotch, and North Italians the smallest representation. The figure given for the Poles is 4,500 and that given for the Swedes is 300. It will be noted that 4,200 persons were of races not specified in the table. In this group were included persons born in the following countries:

Foreign-born persons of unspecified race, by country of birth.


Pacific Islands.
South America.

West Indies (other than

Other countries.

At sea.

Data showing the proportion of persons born in each of the above countries are not available. It will be noted that a very considerable proportion of the foreign-born persons in the community were of the races of recent immigration.



Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied—General

occupation of males at the present time in the households studied—General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied—Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income_Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income—[Text Tables 220 to 237 and General Tables 171 to 180).



Before entering into a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households in Community D, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while a broad are considered. The table first presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 220.Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that 64.6 per cent of the males reporting worked for wages in Europe before coming to the United States, 20.8 per cent worked without wages, 9.9 per cent worked for profit, while only 4.6 per cent were without occupation. Irish when com48296°– -VOL 17-11--21


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