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cans, Irish, Germans and Swedes, who are gradually leaving the plant and entering other occupations.

The employment of the more recent immigrants has been due to the increase in the size of the factory and the difficulty in securing employees of the older immigrant races, or native labor.

There are no statistics available to show the racial movements to Community C, but the returns of the federal and state censuses, exhibiting the changes in the population of the city according to country of birth and parentage, corroborate the preceding history of immigration to the community and its industrial establishments. In 1900 Community C had, according to the Twelfth Census, a population of 25,998. Of this population, 16,705 persons, or 64.26 native-born, and of this number barely two-fifths, or of native parents. Thus little more than a quarter of the city's population (25.84 per cent) was of native parentage.

While the foreign-born persons numbered only 9,293 (35.74 per cent of the total population), there were 9,986 native-born persons whose parents were from foreign countries. So that the number of

persons of foreign parentage was 19,279, almost three-fourths (74.16 per cent) of the total population of the city. This fact is shown by the following figures from the federal census of 1900: TABLE 159.- Population of Community C, by general nativity, 1900.

[From the Twelfth Census.]

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a Chinese.

6 Not shown by the census reports, but as these 118 colored are negroes, it is assumed that they are of native parents.

The following table shows the number of foreign-born persons in Community C, by country of birth, 1900: Table 160.— Number of foreign-born persons in Community C, by country of birth, 1900.

(From United ştates census report, 1900.]

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The foreign-born element was widely distributed as to place of birth. While the census classification does not show race, the countries from which the foreign-born came, as shown in the preceding table, suggest the large number of different races in the city. The following show the population of Community C in 1900, by general nativity, color, and age periods, and the number of foreign-born persons in 1900, distributed by number of years in the United States:

TABLE 161.- Population in Community C, by general nativity and age periods, 1900.

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Foreign-born persons, 1900, distributed by number of years in the United States.

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A rough analysis of the population of the community at the time of the Twelfth Census brings out several significant facts:

1. Of persons under 45 years of age, the number of native-born whites of foreign parentage exceeds, not only in total but also in each of the census age periods, the number of native-born whites of native parentage; of those 45 or more years of age, the numerical relation is reversed; showing that the greatest increase in population due to births has been among the foreign element, that the immigrant races are spreading with a rapidity which will make the true native element constantly a smaller and smaller factor.

2. The number of native-born (of both native and foreign parentage) bears a similar relation to the number of foreign-born. Below the age of 25 the native-born outnumber the foreign-born; from 25 years onward the foreign-born are the more numerous. From this it would appear either that the greatest increase in population during recent years had been due to births rather than to immigration, or that the immigrant influx had been composed chiefly of persons of mature years, although the former deduction seems the more probable. It appears that of the 8,398 foreign-born persons whose length of residence in the United States was known (eliminating the 895 of unknown length of residence), slightly more than 25 per cent (2,151 persons) had been resident in the country for a less period than six years, while only about 42 per cent (3,493 persons) had been in the country less than ten years. Indeed, approximately as many had been in the United States more than fifteen years (3,433) as had been here less than ten years (3,493); and more than one-fourth of the foreign-born had come to the United States twenty or more years before.

3. The number of persons native-born of native parents is greater than the number of foreign-born below the age of 15, but from 15 onward the foreign-born are more numerous. This is indicative of how largely foreign in character are likely to be the birth additions to the population. Putting aside the question of parentage of the 1900 population, comparison of the native-born (of both native and foreign parents) with the foreign-born shown in the following table brings out this significant fact: Of females between the ages of 19 and 45 (which may be taken as the average child-bearing period) the foreign-born compose 44 per cent of the total number.

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Population, 1900, by age periods and general nativity and sex.

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4. Of the English-speaking tendency of the second generation of the immigrant races something is shown in the following statement. While there were 1,345 persons 10 or more years of age who were unable to speak English, only 3 of these were native-born:

Persons 10 or more years of age who can not speak English, by general nativity and color.

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5. The immigrant races are largely represented in the period of childhood and adolescence as shown in the statement next submitted. Of the 7,601 persons between the ages of 4 and 21, less than 27 per cent were whites of native parentage. Thus the coming generation the most impressionable and educable portion of the population, were children of foreign parents to the extent of nearly 69 per cent; and the influences affecting this portion of the population will have much to do with the future of the community.

Persons 5 to 20 years of age (inclusive), by general nativity and color.

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It appears, then, that the immigrant had entered largely into the life of the community in the year 1900. Even without the addition of further arrivals it was inevitable that the presence of the immigrants should be felt and the question of their progress and assimilation was one of no slight importance. The following table shows the number of persons of foreign parentage in the community in 1900; by birthplace of parents: TABLE 162.- Number of persons in Community C, by general nativity and by birthplace

of parents, 1900.

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ESTIMATED POPULATION AT THE PRESENT TIME (1909). In 1907 the population of Community C was estimated to be about 44,000. The increase, however, over the population of 1900 was not due entirely to births or immigration, but in part to an extension of the corporate limits of the city so as to embrace the entire township. Assuming the slight decrease in population caused by the business depression of 1907–8 to have been hardly more than equalized by births and by new immigrant arrivals during the past half year of renewed industrial activity, a conservative estimate places the present population of the city at a little over 44,000. To determine what part of this population is of native birth would be difficult. Probably, however, the number of native-born persons is

a Annual reports of the officials and departments of the city for the year ending Mar. 31, 1908, p. iv.

slightly over half of the total population, or from 23,000 to 25,000. Whatever relation persons of native birth may bear to the total population, it is evident from the census figures for 1900 that those of foreign parentage compose the bulk of it. The foreign-born portion of the population probably comprises a little less than one-half of the total population, but no very accurate estimate can be made. Putting aside the question of place of birth, it is possible to approximate the number of persons of each of the principal races in the community.

Estimated population of Community C, 1909. Irish...

12,500 German.

7,500 Swedish.

7, 200 American, white.

7,000 Polish..

4,000 Italian...

1, 300 Lithuanian.

1, 200 Hebrew..

1,000 English (foreign-born).

500 Scotch.

400 Slovak.

400 Armenian.

300 French Canadian.

300 Persian (Assyrian)

250 Ruthenian.

250 Negros (American)

110 Russian..

80 Greek.

40 French.

15 Chinese.

13 Other races (perhaps).

50 Total...

44, 408 The above shows such an approximation. In general, these figures may be taken as fair estimates, having been obtained after consulting a considerable number of persons, representing all of the races in question. Twenty races have been indicated; a few others are present in the city, but in such insignificant numbers that it has not been thought worth while to endeavor to trace them.

It will be observed that the Irish constitute over one-fourth of the total population. The Germans and Swedes each form approximately one-sixth of the population, while fourth in numerical strength stand the Americans (white), having less than one-sixth of the whole number of persons in the city. It appears that the Irish, Germans, and Swedes together constitute 61 per cent of the population. While the total of all the immigrant races (including both native and foreign-born persons) is over 84 per cent of the total population, yet the English-speaking races (American, Irish, English, and Scotch) compose not far from half (43 per cent) of the population.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

A further insight into the character of recent and past immigration to the community is also afforded by the series of tables which immediately follow and which show the length of residence in the United States of foreign-born wage-earners and members of their

48296°—VOL 17-11-16

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