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TABLE 144.-Crime record of minors, by race, Community B, 1908.
Of the crimes committed in this community no one can be said to be peculiar to any one race, as in almost all cases the crimes committed by those of foreign races have also been committed by natives. Two crimes were charged against Italians which no other race committed, namely, carrying concealed weapons and assault with intent to kill. No murders within the year were committed by a representative or representatives of any race. After the native white, the Polish race had most charges brought against it, while the Irish and Italian follow with about the same number, although in proportion to population the Italian rate would be about 6 to 1. The Italian race shows a tendency to protect criminals of its own race, but this tendency is counteracted through the employment of an Italian police officer, who has proven very successful in ferreting out such criminals. Among the Poles, but to a less extent, criminals are protected; but most of the crimes committed by the Poles have come about through drunkenness as the primary cause. No other race shows any marked tendency toward protecting its criminals.
But 2 cases of criminality among the children of immigrants against 55 among the children of the natives were recorded during 1908, and of these 1 was for theft in the case of a Polish child, and 1 for incorrigibility in the case of a child of French Canadian parentage.
IMMIGRANTS IN BUSINESS AND THE PROFESSIONS.
Immigrants in business-Immigrants in the professions [Text Tables 145 and 146].
IMMIGRANTS IN BUSINESS.
There are no opportunities for immigrants to go into business in Community B at the present, and unless they have mastered their trades they will be unable to find employment in the different industries located in the city. The community is an old city, thoroughly built up, with a population which is not increasing very rapidly. The demand for unskilled labor is not large, and, aside from employment on farms in the vicinity or as general laborers, the immigrants have small chance of employment in the locality. This is shown by the fact that within the last ten years immigration to the community has practically ceased. There is no demand for industrial workers, as a plentiful supply is already available, and the tide of immigration has consequently turned in other directions.
Of all immigrant races in the community, the Hebrew, in proportion to its population, has the largest number of persons engaged in trade. Over 13 per cent of the Hebrew population is engaged in some busiAbout one-fifth of those in trade are in the junk business, and more than one-sixth of the total number are engaged either as tailors or as cleaners of clothes.
The Italian race stands next in this regard, with about 9 per cent of its population in business. More than one-fourth of this number are grocers, less than one-sixth are cobblers, one-eighth barbers, and one-eighth fruiterers. The English population is third among the foreign races in business, with a little less than 4 per cent of the total population in business. They have entered all classes of businesses. The largest number in any one business are grocers, of which there are eight, while the second largest are carpenters and builders, of which there are five. The Irish in the community have about 3 per cent of their population engaged in some form of business. More than onethird of the number are grocers or saloon keepers. Of the German population, less than 3 per cent are engaged in business. The largest number in any one business are grocers, who constitute almost 19 per cent of those in trade. Over 7 per cent of the total number of Germans engaged in business in the community are saloon keepers. Only a very small number of French Canadians, Poles, and Swedes are engaged in business. Among the Greeks will also be found a small number of persons conducting bootblacking and fruit and candy stands. With the exception of the stores kept by Germans and Hebrews, the businesses conducted by the immigrants in the city are comparatively small. People of one race patronize their fellowcountrymen. In the Italian and Polish quarters of the city, and to a less extent in the neighborhood of the French Canadians, the stores are patronized by the immigrants largely on account of convenience
and because the articles sold are moderate in price and meet the demands of the purchasers. The following table presents the numbers of native Americans and immigrants and their children of all races who were engaged in some field of business during the TABLE 145.-Native Americans and immigrants in business, by race.
The methods employed by the natives and immigrants in conducting their businesses are practically the same. The immigrant establishments are usually much smaller than those conducted by the American merchants, and the immigrants consequently take little interest in the business men's association and the board of trade. There are, however, a number of immigrant merchants in the community who conduct important businesses and who employ thoroughly up-to-date and American methods. English-speaking immigrants and the Germans associate freely with native Americans in business matters from the time of their entrance into the community. Such races as the Italian, Polish, French Canadian, and Greek, however, hold themselves aloof from the Americans when they first enter the city, but after a few years, when the barriers of language and racial prejudice are in a manner removed, business association between the natives and immigrants becomes general. The only possible exception to this tendency that can be mentioned is the clannish attitude displayed by the Poles. The number of Poles who are engaged in business in the community is small, and they affect conditions in the community very slightly.
The immigrants found in business in the community are generally of the highest class found among their respective races and are those who have succeeded best under their new environment. The immigrants who are the proprietors of businesses hold a recognized place in the community. They are generally looked on as among the most progressive of their people by both natives and the aliens. The immigrants in business are chiefly old residents of the community who first worked in the industrial plants; when their savings were sufficient they branched out for themselves and started small stores or businesses. In some cases the stores were started and conducted by the wives while the husbands continued at work in the other occupations. Among their own people the immigrant business men stand higher than in the community proper. They are spoken of as having accomplished something, and their success is given a magnified value. The community in general, however, respects the immigrant business men, and, in case of old residents, there is no difference in the standing of the men of foreign birth and the natives. The immigrant storekeepers from southern and eastern Europe have been residents of the city for a comparatively short period of time and transact business on a much smaller scale than do the older races in point of residence, yet they receive an acknowledged standing in the community.
IMMIGRANTS IN THE PROFESSIONS.
Very few immigrants or their children in the community are represented in the professions.
The table next presented shows the number of Americans and immigrants and their children in Community B who were engaged in the professions in the year 1908.