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TABLE 141.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Of the 1,051 females reporting complete data in the foregoing table, a larger proportion are found in the age period 30 to 44 years than in any other age group. The exact proportion is 21.1 per cent. The proportion of second rank is shown for those who are between the ages of 6 and 13. There the proportion is 20.6 per cent. Less
than 5 per cent of the total number reporting are from 14 to 15 years of age and between 5 and 10 per cent are from 16 to 19 years of age. Between the ages of 6 and 19 the foreign-born show a larger proportion than do the native-born of foreign father, but of those under 6 and over 20 the proportion of native-born of foreign father is larger than the proportion of foreign-born. Comparing the ages of the male persons with the ages of the female persons, it is seen that the former show in each specified age group a proportion that is in no case as much as 2 per cent different from that shown by the females. Of the total number of males under 29 years of age the foreign-born show a larger proportion than do the native-born of foreign father, but above the age of 29 the native-born of foreign father appear in the largest proportion. The South Italians and Poles show larger proportions than do the other races of males below the age of 6 years. Less than 10 per cent of the German males are below that age. The French Canadians and Germans each show nearly 25 per cent of the males to be between the age of 6 and 13, while less than 15 per cent of the South Italians are in that age group. Less than 10 per cent of the males of any race are between the ages of 14 and 15. The Swedes show the largest proportion of males who are from 30 to 44 and the Poles show the smallest proportion who are 45 years of age or over. Of the foreign-born females the Poles show the largest proportion who are under 6 years of age and the smallest proportion who are 45 years of age or over. The Germans show a greater proportion of adults than of children. The French Canadians show the largest proportion between the ages of 6 and 13 years. No race shows. as many as 10 per cent who are from 14 to 15 years of age.
Of the total number of individuals in this locality for whom information was secured, 18.2 per cent are under 6 years of age, 20 per cent are from 6 to 13, 4.2 per cent are from 14 to 15, 7.7 per cent are from 16 to 19, 16.2 per cent are from 20 to 29, 21.2 per cent are from 30 to 44, and 12.5 per cent are 45 or over. The proportion of individuals under 6, from 6 to 13, from 14 to 15, from 16 to 19, and from 20 to 29 is larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion from 30 to 44 and 45 or over is considerably larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, the Poles and Germans show the largest and the French Canadians the smallest proportion of individuals from 20 to 29 years of age, the Swedes and French Canadians the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of individuals. from 30 to 44 years of age, and the Germans and French Canadians the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of individuals 45 years of age or over.
GENERAL EFFECT OF IMMIGRATION ON THE COMMUNITY.
In general the effect of immigration upon the community has been beneficial. Industries such as those which produce plated silverware and cutlery have been largely developed by immigrant labor, and the immigrants who have entered the industries have been of a type that is readily assimilated, and has added materially to the general development of the population. With the exception of the Irish, none of the races of older immigration have been financially burdensome to the city; but the Irish have received more aid per
capita than the immigrants of any other race. Immigrants of the races from southern and eastern Europe who have come in since 1880 have not aided greatly in the development of industry. They have done the rough and unskilled work, and with the exception of the Poles, who stand next after the Irish in the matter of receiving financial aid, have not hindered the development of the community. The races of recent immigration have been less literate than those of old immigration. As they have had little to build upon, their development has been slow. Among the Italians and the Poles, segregation in housing hinders development, makes assimilation slower, and tends to have a bad effect on the whole community. Still these races have made, and are making, progress, which is apparent in the second generation. Immigration has proven beneficial to the community because the large majority of immigrants coming in have been productive workers. The influx of immigrants has never been as large or so rapid as to make a foreign city of the community, and most of the immigrants have been equipped with trades and have readily found employment. Some of the effects of immigration have not been beneficial. The city has been forced to pay for the support of immigrants who have become unfit for work and unable to support themselves. Drunkenness, and crimes resulting from drink, have been common among persons of foreign birth. The segregation of races has not aided in the development of the city nor added to its beauty. In this respect immigration has, of course, been an evil; industrially, however, it has undoubtedly benefited the community.
As showing the extent to which financial aid is rendered the representatives of the various races and their families, the following statements are presented:
Races receiving poor relief from Community B for year ending August 31, 1908.
Families receiving private relief furnished by the city mission—Races by families.
Aside from the beneficial societies maintained by the Polish, German, Italian, Swedish, Irish, and French Canadian races, no other aid is given by members of a race to those in need of charity except by the Hebrews, and where the person in need is not a member of a beneficial society he becomes dependent on the city or on private charity. The Roman Catholic Church as a church offers no assistance to the inmigrant poor of this community. The city mission is an institution which gives aid to all classes, and on its board of trustees the ministers of the Protestant denomination serve and in this way all the Protestant churches are represented. This society in some cases cooperates with the city in the granting of relief, but in most instances works independently, granting temporary assistance to those in need. Among the Hebrews the Jewish Charitable Institution, with a membership of 125, administers to the wants of the Jewish poor. Practically all Jews in Community B contribute to this society, contributions from 5 cents upward being received. The Jewish population is fairly well situated financially and but few have become even temporarily dependent.
DISEASES PECULIAR TO IMMIGRANTS.
The diseases of immigrants vary in no way from those of the natives. The principal diseases of the community are those of the throat, such as catarrh, and of the lungs, such as pneumonia. The health of all races is comparatively good, and no one race is open to any special disease.
The total number of births in Community B during the year 1907 was 767, and the total deaths 454. The estimated population in 1907 was 30,990; the birth rate per thousand, therefore, was 24.7 per cent, and the death rate 14.3 per cent per thousand. The variations in the death or birth rates for the different races and nativity groups could not be ascertained.
The immigrant races, with the exception of the Russian and Polish Jews and the Italians, are obedient to the health regulations of the city. With the Italians and Jews it is hard to enforce any regulation for the public health, and only by compulsion and strict supervision will these people obey the health laws. They are found to live in unhealthful surroundings, made so through their own neglect, and it is extremely difficult to get them to follow the simplest rules of hygiene. They are found to be the most susceptible of all races to disease, although no special diseases are peculiar to them as a people.
The criminal tendencies of the various races in Community B are set forth in the tables following, which show the nature of the offense and the number of each race accused thereof during the year 1908.
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