BOARDERS AND LODGERS. The practice of the wives of employees in Community B in supplementing the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers: into the home has already been discussed. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which exhibits the number and per cent. of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household: TABLE 129.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by generat, nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.] A little more than 16 per cent of the total number of households. studied keep boarders or lodgers. The foreign-born show a much larger proportion of such households than do the native-born of foreign father, while the proportion of households whose heads are native whites born of native father keeping boarders or lodgers is too small for computation. Among the second-generation immigrants, the Irish show a larger proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers than does any other one race. Among the foreign-born nearly 35 per cent of the households the heads of which are Poles keep boarders or lodgers, as compared with but 8.8 per cent of the households the heads of which are Germans. The Swedes, South Italians, and French Canadians each show a proportion ranging from 10 to 15. per cent of households that keep either boarders or lodgers. In the following table the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households, and (2) on the number of households taking boarders or lodgers: TABLE 130.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) Among the 440 households studied, 71 keep boarders or lodgers, the total number of boarders or lodgers in all such households being 109. Based on the number of households studied the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is less than 1, while based on the number of households that keep boarders or lodgers the average number is 1.54. Based on the total number of households studied, the average number of boarders or lodgers per Polish household is 0.48. For French Canadian households the average is 0.31 and for South Italian households it is 0.26. The number of boarders or lodgers in households the heads of which are foreign-born North Italians is too small for computation. Based on number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household the heads of which are foreign-born Swedes is 1.60 and in households the heads of which are foreign-born Poles it is 1.38. SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED. The range in size of apartments occupied by the households is indicated in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of head of household the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms: TABLE 131.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.] Data are included in the above table for a total of 440 households. The average number of rooms per household is 4.72. None of the households occupy apartments of 1 room and only 2 per cent occupy apartments of 2 rooms. The greatest proportion are found in apartments of 4 rooms and the next largest in apartments of 5 rooms. Only 9.3 per cent of the total number occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms. When compared with the native-born of foreign father, the foreign-born show the largest proportion of households occupying 3 and 5 room apartments and the smallest proportion occupying apartments of 4, 6, and 7 or more rooms. Only 8 per cent of the households the heads of which are foreign-born occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms. The South Italian and Polish are the only foreign-born races that show any households occupying 2-room apartments and the proportion for each of these races is less than 7 per cent. More than 40 per cent of the South Italians and Poles occupy 3-room apartments, as compared with 2.4 per cent of the Swedes and 3.1 per cent of the French Canadians. A greater proportion of the Poles than of any other foreign-born race occupy 4-room apartments, while the same race shows the smallest proportion in 5-room apartments. None of the Polish households occupy apartments of more than 5 rooms. Slightly more than 32 per cent of the Swedes occupy 6-room apartments and nearly 20 per cent of 48296°- -VOL 17-11-12 the German and over 10 per cent of the Swedish households occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms. The proportion of the South Italian households occupying apartments of 7 or more rooms is less than 5 per cent. SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS. The following table exhibits the range in size of households studied by showing the percentage of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household: TABLE 132.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) Data for 440 households are included in the above table. The average number of persons per household is 5.05. None of the households have less than 2 persons and only 4.3 per cent have 10 or more persons. Nearly 20 per cent are households of 4 persons and 18.6 per cent are households of 3 persons. When compared with the native-born of foreign father the foreign-born show the smallest proportion of households of 4 persons or less, but of households of 5 or more persons the foreign-born show the highest proportion. Among the foreign-born the South Italians and Germans show almost similar proportions of households of 2 persons, the French Canadians showing the smallest. Of the foreign-born households that have 4 persons the Germans show the smallest proportion and the Poles the largest. Less than 10 per cent of the households of any foreign-born race have 8 or 9 persons. Nearly 15 per cent of the French Canadian households have 10 or more persons, but for each of the other races the proportion having that number is less than 10 per cent. CONGESTION. Preceding tables indicate the extent to which crowding prevails in the households of the community. The degree of congestion and its effects upon living arrangements is more directly set forth in the following series of tables. The first table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room. TABLE 133.-Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household. In the 440 households studied the average number of persons per apartment is 5.05, per room 1.07, and per sleeping room 2.26. In each specified space the average number shown by the households the heads of which are foreign-born is much larger than that shown by the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. The native whites born of native father show an average of less than 1 person per room and less than 3 persons per sleeping room. The average number of persons per apartment for that group is 4.70. Of the foreign-born races all except the Swedish show average numbers not greatly divergent. The average number of persons in households the heads of which are foreign-born Swedes is 4.76. The largest average number of persons per apartment5.83-is shown by the foreign-born French Canadians. Each other foreign-born race shows an average number that is between 5 and 6. The Germans and Swedes each show an average number of persons per room that is less than 1. No race shows an average number of persons per room that is as great as 2. The Poles show the greatest degree of congestion in sleeping rooms. The average number of persons per sleeping room for households of that race is 2.69. The Germans show the least degree of congestion in sleeping rooms, with an average of but 2.08 persons per sleeping room. |