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Of the 540 persons in this locality for whom information was obtained, 24.8 per cent are affiliated with trade unions, the foreignborn reporting 23.2 as compared with 29.1 per cent of the native-born of foreign father, and 30 per cent of the native whites born of native father. Among the foreign-born the French Canadians, Germans, and Swedes each show a proportion affiliated with trade unions in excess of that shown for the total foreign-born, while the Poles and South Italians each show a proportion below, the proportion of South Italians, however, amounting to less than 2
cent. Of the nativeborn of foreign father, the Germans, with 38.9 per cent affiliated with trade unions, show a considerably larger proportion than do the Irish and a much larger proportion than do the French Canadians, the last named reporting 18.5 per cent.
The attitude of the various races toward trade unions in this community is favorable. Some of the workmen who come from other countries carry traveling cards which readily admit them to membership in the union of their trade. When the immigrant of any race learns the aims of the American labor union and thoroughly understands them, and this process is usually slow, he is willing to become a member of the union of his craft. His object in joining the union is generally selfish, and he has no great desire to further the cause of unionism. He sees that it is best to rely upon collective bargaining with the employer, to have regular hours of work, and to stand with his fellows on questions of wages, rate per piece or hour, and the number of apprentices to be employed, and other questions, because it is to his advantage to do so, but in attendance on meetings or in any special work the immigrant is not as active as the native. The race which is most favorable to trade unionism, in Community B, is the German, as most of the German workmen have trades. The race least interested in the cause of the unions is the Polish. The races coming from the north of Europe are principally made up of men who have a trade, while those immigrants of southern European countries and from eastern Europe are generally unskilled laborers, and as the unskilled trades are not recognized by the labor unions these people are not admitted into the ranks of unionism.
Any immigrant who has a trade may become a member of the local branch union of that trade. There are twenty-two local branches of the labor unions in Community B, and they number many immigrants on their rolls. Each union is desirous of securing as large an enrollment as possible, and an immigrant can secure membership as easily as one of native race, no discrimination being made against any immigrant race.
EMPLOYMENT AVAILABLE. Like most of the cities in Connecticut, the locality studied is essentially a manufacturing community. The principal industry is the manufacture of plated silverware. Over one-third of the city's industrial output consists of plated silverware and britannia ware. In these industries men of the highest skill are employed, and the average wages paid are the highest paid in any skilled industrial employment in the United States.
Like the plated-silverware industry, the making of hardware offers employment to a large number of men. In this industry skill is required on the part of the employees, as the work done is of a high grade. In the manufacture of cutlery, foundry and machine-shop products, gas and lamp fixtures, lamps and reflectors, firearms, cut glass, brass goods, automatic pianos and materials, house furnishing, and other minor manufactures employment is found by workmen who possess some amount of skill. With the exception of the laborers employed in these industries, the majority of the men employed have some trade. This fact accounts, in a measure, for the high wages paid. The various occupations in almost all industries in the community require men of experience and skill, and those who apply for work having no trade stand little chance of finding employment.
EMPLOYMENT OF IMMIGRANTS BECAUSE OF PECULIAR TRAINING OR
In the occupation of burnishing in the plated-silverware industry, the French Canadians show a peculiar aptitude for the work and are employed because of their skill. An official of an important silverware plant remarked that “The French Canadians were born with a burnishing brush in their hands.” The majority of the race in Community Bare burnishers by trade, and the skill of the fathers has been handed down to the sons through several generations. The Germans found in the same industry show a marked ability for designing and possess a high degree of skill. They have accomplished the majority of the inventions which have been made in the industry, and are regarded by the operators as indispensable.
In this community there seems to be little prejudice against the immigrants of any race. The different races endeavor, wherever possible, to help their own people. No sectional feeling or race hatred is found. This may be due to the fact that there is no one race strong enough to dominate either in business or politics and to the further fact that most of the industries are in the hands of natives or their descendants. In politics the same conditions obtain, no one race being powerful enough to override the others, and here again the natives are in control.
INDUSTRIAL EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION.
Immigrant employers—Effects of immigration upon local industries-Industries
established to supply demands of immigrant consumers—Industries established or promoted by immigrants.
The instances found in Community B where immigrants have become employers are furnished by à North Italian building contractor, a small German iron foundry employing about 16 men, and a small braid mill operated by French Canadians. The industries of the community are old and well established and require a large amount of capital to operate them. These facts have barred immigrants from becoming employers. The Italain contractor and the managers of the German iron foundry employ men of their respective races in their activities. The braid mill operated by French Canadians employs only women and girls, and the preference is given to French Canadians. It is the practice of the immigrant employers to discriminate in favor of their own people, but the amount of work done by them is so small as to be negligible when compared with the importance of the industries conducted by the Americans.
EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION UPON LOCAL INDUSTRIES.
The several industries located in Community B are peculiar in that they demand a high type of worker. In most cases it is necessary that the person who applies for employment should possess a. trade. In the plated silverware works, the cut-glass factories, the lamp, gas, and electric-fixture shops, the automatic piano and other industrial establishments, highly skilled workmen are required, and the immigrants who secure employment have thoroughly mastered their occupations and are most often capable of easily adapting themselves to American methods. For example, in the silverware industry a man who applies for work, applies for employment in a certain occupation, as buffer, polisher, and engraver. . If he has not completed his apprenticeship, he is seldom given employment. The same conditions are found in the majority of the industries in the community, and the men who are unable to do skilled work experience difficulty in securing work and often go elsewhere for employment.
The English-speaking immigrants, the Germans, French Canadians, and Swedes have had the effect of advancing local industries in the community, for among them are found the skilled workers.
The races from southern and eastern Europe, which began to come to the community in large numbers after 1885, such as the Italians, Poles, Lithuanians, and in a few cases, Greeks, have affected local industries but little as they have been employed only in the lower occupations. In some industries, however, as in the lamp and chan
delier business, the employment of Polish women has had the tendency to displace American women. The Poles are credited with being hard, consistent workers, and as they are willing to take less wages, in some cases as low as 70 cents a day, their labor was chosen in preference to that of the American women.
With this one exception, no bad effects are to be noted upon local industries through the employment of immigrants. In general, it may be said that the immigrants from the north of Europe have assisted materially in developing local industries in Community B, while the races from the south and east of Europe have done little to advance the industry, although they have played an important part in supplying the demand for unskilled labor in certain establishments.
INDUSTRIES ESTABLISHED TO SUPPLY DEMANDS OF IMMIGRANT CON
No industries are carried on in the community because of the demand of the immigrant consumers. The demand of the immigrants are practically the same as those of the natives, and where they have an income equal to that of the native Americans their purchases are the same. This is the case with the immigrants who intend to become citizens, while those who intend to return to their native lands constantly keep before them the idea of saving and govern their expenditures accordingly. Their demands differ from those who intend to remain in this country in quality rather than kind, for they always purchase the cheaper articles.
INDUSTRIES ESTABLISHED OR PROMOTED BY IMMIGRANTS.
The large industries of Community B are almost wholly in the hands of native Americans, and with the exception of two or three small concerns no industries have been established by immigrants. In the development of the industries the immigrants have contributed their knowledge and skill. The development of the silverware and automatic piano industries has been chiefly because of the ability to employ skilled immigrant labor. The Germans have proved to be the most fruitful in ideas, and to them are accredited many designs and inventions.
In the minor trades, such as grocer, baker, barber, butcher, tailor, cobbler, and others requiring comparatively little capital and no large degree of skill, each of the foreign-born races prominent in the community have representatives. People of one race generally patronize the places conducted by members of their race. This, however, is not carried out to any marked degree, and is as much a question of convenience as of racial favoritism. The Italians deal at Italian grocery stores, for instance, because they are located in the Italian quarter and keep the articles called for by the Italian population. On the other hand, the Italian and Greek fruit stores are patronized by all races and are located on the business streets of the city. In trade the barriers of race have been removed, while socially they are still upheld.
HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.
Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments
occupied-Size of households—Congestion-Housing and segregation—[Text Tables 125 to 136 and General Tables 108 to 119].
RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.
The monthly rent payments of the households whose heads are employed in Community B are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living because of congestion within the households arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month paid per apartment, per room, and per person:
TABLE 125.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.
Of the 336 households included in the above table, the average rent per month per apartment is $9.48; per room, $2.12; and per person, $1.92. The households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father pay a much higher rent per apartment and per person than do the households the heads of which are foreign-born, and while the difference in the rent paid per room indicates the samé tendency, it is not so marked as in the other two items. The native whites born of native father pay an average rent per apartment per