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CHAPTER II. RACIAL COMPOSITION OF THE OPERATING FORCES AT THE

PRESENT TIME.

Carpet manufacture_Car building and repairing—Cutlery and tools--Electrical supplies Electric railways-Firearms—Foundry and machine-shop productsKnit goods and hosiery-Locomotive building and repairing-Paper and wood pulp-Paper products-Rope, twine, and hemp—Sewing machines—Steam railwayş-Typewriters—Zinc smelting and refining-[Text Tables 2 to 24 and General Tables 2 to 28].

In the present chapter an exhibit is made of the racial composition of the operating forces of the 16 industries under discussion. The showing is made upon the basis of information secured for individual employees, which in the case of each industry is believed to be sufficiently extensive to be representative. The tabulations which immediately follow are arranged alphabetically according to industries.

CARPET MANUFACTURE. The table first presented shows, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured engaged in the manufacture of carpets: TABLE 2.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and

-Carpet manufacture. (STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

race-

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White......

136

261

2

397

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Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Austria-Hungary.
Canada.
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Russia
Scotland.
Switzerland..

Wales....
Foreign-born, by race:

Bohemian and Moravian
Canadian, French..
Canadian, Other.
Danish.
Dutch.
English..
German.
Greek
Irish
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch
Slovenian..
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total.
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

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148

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1,283

1,896

398

154 290 323

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52.7

244 507 776

797 1,099

19.0 39.5 60.5

Of 1,896 persons employed in the carpet-manufacturing industry for whom information was secured, 1,283 are males and 613 are females. Of both the males and females the largest proportion are foreign-born, the proportions of white males native-born of native father and foreign-born following in the order named. The native white females born of foreign father show a slightly larger proportion than those who were native-born of native father. The smallest proportion in each instance is shown by native negroes born of native father, there being 0.2 per cent of males and no females of that nativity.

The largest proportion of both males and females of foreign birth are Polish. The only other races showing as high as 5 per cent of the total number of foreign-born males being the French Canadian, English, German, Irish, and South Italian. No other race except the Polish show as high as 4 per cent of the total number of foreign-born females. The total number of both males and females who are native-born of foreign father is composed largely of those whose fathers were born in Canada, England, Germany, and Ireland.

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CAR BUILDING AND REPAIRING—EAST.

The following table shows the number and percentage of male employees of each race for whom information was secured employed in car building and repairing in the East: TABLE 3.- Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

raceCar building and repairingEast.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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15 696

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Total native-born of foreign

father.
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born.

1,700
5,960
5,019

15.5 54.3 45.7

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

Of the 10,979 male employees of this industry in this locality for. whom information was obtained, 45.7 per cent are foreign-born, 15.5 per cent native-born of foreign father, and 37.7 and 1.1 per cent native-born of native father, whites and negroes, respectively. Although quite a large number of races are represented in this industry, only those constituting as much as 1 per cent of the total number of employees are considered.

Among the foreign-born, the representatives of the Polish race constitute a larger proportion of all employees than do the representatives of any other race, or 10.2 per cent. Following the Poles are the Germans, Slovaks, Magyars, South Italians and Russians, English and Ruthenians, Irish, North Italians, Croatians, and Lithuanians, in the order named, with proportions ranging from 6.3 to 1.1 per cent.

Of the native-born of foreign father, only those whose fathers were born in Germany, Ireland, and England constitute each as much as 1 per cent of all employees for whom information was obtained, the proportions constituted by those whose fathers were born in the above specified countries ranging from 7.6 to 1.6 per cent.

CAR BUILDING AND REPAIRING-MIDDLE WEST. The following table shows the number and percentage of male employees of each race for whom information was secured, employed in car building and repairing in the Middle West. TABLE 4.- Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

raceCar building and repairingMiddle West.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Foreign-born, by race-Con.
1,387

13.5 Hebrew, 'Other.
162
1.6 Irish.

Italian, North

Italian, South 58

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Lithuanian.
1
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Macedonian.
64

Magyar.. 9

Mexican. 94

Montenegrin..
29

Norwegian.
901
8.7

Polish
223

2.2 Roumanian
9
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Russian.
94

9

Ruthenian 19

Scotch. 1

Scotch-Irish. 1

Servian. 42

4 Slovak 39

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Slovenian
131
1.3

Swedish
16

2

Turkish 14

.1 Welsh.

Australian (race not speci8

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fied). 190

1.8 Austrian (race not speci23

fied)... 52

Belgian (race not speci95

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fied).
105

1.0 South American (race not
49
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specified).
340

3.3 Swiss (racé not specified). 211

2.0
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.1 Total native-born of foreign
1,166

11.3 father.. 90

.9 Total native-born. 10

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Total foreign-born. a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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Information was obtained in this industry for 10,301 male employees, of which number 68 per cent were foreign-born, 16.9 per cent native-born of foreign father, 13.5 per cent native whites born of native father, and 1.6 per cent native negroes born of native father. Although 42 foreign-born race groups are shown in the above table, only 13 constitute each as much as 1 per cent of all employees for whom information was obtained. Of these, the Poles with 15.3 per cent constitute a slightly larger proportion than do the Germans who, in turn, constitute a slightly larger proportion than the Swedes—the three combined constituting 36.5 per cent of all employees, or over 50 per cent of the employees of foreign birth. Following the Swedes, and constituting a considerably smaller proportion of all employees, are the Lithuanians with 4.3 per cent. This it will be noted is slightly in excess of the proportions shown by the Dutch, North Italians, Magyars, Slovaks, English, Bohemians and Moravians, Irish, Russians, or Croatians—the last named constituting 1 per cent of all employees.

Among the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Germany, Ireland, and Sweden constitute 8.7, 2.2, and 1.3 per cent, respectively, of all employees as compared with less than 1 per cent each of those whose fathers were born in each of the other countries shown in the above table.

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The following table shows the number and per cent of male employees of each race for whom information was secured, employed in car building and repairing in the South:

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TABLE 5.— Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

race-Car building and repairingSouth.

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Of the 675 male employees of this industry concerning whom information was obtained, only 4.6 per cent were foreign-born and only 10.5 per cent were native-born of foreign father, while 67.9 and 17 per cent were native-born of native father, whites and negroes, respectively.

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