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3. With a happy, healthy sociable environment, there should be less chronic illness and complaint-this has been demonstrated elsewhere. XI. What about social services : recreation, hobbies, etc.?

1. The central facilities of a project of 300 units could include not only dining hall (doubling as evening recreation assembly hall) but rooms for hobbies and crafts, shops for those who want to putter around, greenhouse, and other centers for special interest groups—and the number of residents would be large enough that everyone should be able to find others who share his common concerns.

2. In other words, the idea is to create opportunities for tenant-run interest groups, voluntarily met and self-run. The management should simply help to bring those with common interests together, and help secure the needed equipment, etc. (Incidentally, sponsors might be very helpful on a continuing basis in assisting at this point.)

3. Nonresidents might be invited to join in the community activities, as interested, on a club basis, with monthly membership fee for use of facilities—and this will help pay for the overhead of a director for social services.

4. Other facilities throughout the community should be called into play, so that the recreation department, public library, and other facilities are made available to the residents. But locating this project close in to such facilities is the best answer to most of this use of other facilities.

5. There must be no regimentation one of the freedoms of the resident should be the freedom not to participate, or to start his own interest group. The aged have a lot of experience, maturity, wisdom, and talent. They are

not little children, with rare exceptions. XII. How do we get going at this?

1. Decide whether or not your group needs, and wants, to do this. 2. Find out how many need what kind of facility, in general.

3. Decide whether to strike out on your own, or join with other sponsors in a joint project. (The optimum, or least-cost-per-unit, project will have from 200 to 300 units. If your needs are substantially less than this, it might be better to find other sponsors interested in sharing central facilities, though each would own its own set of residence units).

4. Organize a trust corporation, 5. Acquire the initial capital, from whatever source it can. 6. Get a small committee, or a single person, designated to make the planning decisions, and get under way.

7. Process the plan through FHA.
8. Borrow the 90 percent.
9. Build it.

10. Operate it-through a paid manager, with the trustees in legal control. Use your best lay membership-don't expect that busy organization executives (as for example, ministers) can take over a full-time busi

ness like this in addition to their present chores.
XIII. What sponsors in Denver, Colo., have shown interest?

1. Congregational Church.
2. Baptist Church.
3. Lutheran Church.
4. Christian Church.
5. Jewish family and childrens service.
6. Episcopal Diocese.
7. Catholic Charities.
8. Nursing alumni.
9. Retired teachers.
10. Methodist Church.

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45. 00 1 30 units will take care of 60 to 75 individuals.

? This allows $18,000 for service buildings such as recreation on 30-unit basis or $90,000 on 150-unit basis.

II. Two-bedroom unit Cost: 2-bedroom unit-

$5,000.00 Land.-

1,000.00

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65.00 * 150 units will take care of 300 to 375 individuals. * This allows $18,000 for service buildings such as recreation on 30-unit basis or $90,000 on 150-unit basis.

The CHAIRMAN. We are going to recess here in a moment, subject to the call of the chairman. I again want to say that anyone who wishes to may file any supplemental statements or any other statements. We will hold the record open for a couple of weeks. We hope to have the bill ready for the floor no later than May 1, and we hope to start writing it up no earlier than April 10. Sometime around April 10.

As I said a moment ago, the staff will now proceed to take every suggestion that has been made and itemize it and study it, and present it to every member of this committee.

Then we will get busy on the real, tough part of this whole business, and that is writing up the legislation.

So, we will recess this hearing indefinitely, until the call of the chairman.

The Senate Banking and Currency Committee will have a meeting at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning, the full committee, to receive a report from Mr. Cravens of RFC on what progress he is making in respect to liquidating RFC. We will also have the head of the commission that is disposing of the synthetic rubber plants, and he will answer any questions that any members of the committee might care to ask him.

With that, we will recess.

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene at the call of the chairman.)

JIOUSING ACT OF 1954

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 14, 1954

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON BANKING AND CURRENCY, ,

Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to call, at 2 p. m., in room 301, Senate Office Building, Senator Barry Goldwater, presiding.

Present: Senators Capehart and Goldwater.
Also present: Senator Thomas H. Kuchel of California.

Senator GOLDWATER. The committee will please come to order. Our first witness will be Mr. John P. Robin, executive director, Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh, Pa., representing the United States Conference of Mayors.

Mr. Robin, if you would like to give your testimony we will be very happy to start the meeting, now.

Your testimony will be made a part of the record as you have written it, and you may proceed in any way that you care to.

STATEMENT OF JOHN P. ROBIN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, URBAN

REDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF PITTSBURGH, PA., UNITED STATES CONFERENCE OF MAYORS

Mr. Robin. Senator, I am John P. Robin. I am executive director of the Urban Redevelopment Authority at Pittsburgh, Pa. My testimony is presented on behalf of the United States' Conference of Mayors, which represents almost all of the cities of this country of more than 50,000 population.

I would like to file for the record without reading it, resolution and statement previously issued by the conference of mayors on our subject.

Senator GOLDWATER. They will be received. (The information referred to follows:)

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE 1953 ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES

CONFERENCE OF MAYORS, SEPTEMBER 22, 1953

SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN REDEVELOPMENT Whereas since enactment of the Housing Act of 1949, over 6 square miles of slums and blight have been marked out for clearance and redevelopment; and

Whereas some of this work is already underway involving 92 projects in 64 cities throughout the country; and

Whereas many other slum clearance and redevelopment projects have likewise already been selected by cities for inclusion in the Federal program; and

Whereas this program is fundamental to the necessary rebuilding and reconstruction of slum and blighted areas in many of our cities ; and

Whereas this is the only program of its character in which private investment plays a most important and integral part : Therefore, be it

Resolved, That the 1953 annual conference of the United States Conference of Mayors petition the President and the Congress to carry forward, on an expanded basis, this most important phase of the overall national housing program.

44750—54-pt. 1 ----66

RELOCATION PUBLIC HOUSING At the Conference on Governmental Functions and Fiscal Resources, called by the President on March 31, 1953, last, the United States Conference of Mayors formally recommended that relocation public housing be authorized in order that the needs in those cities where slums are being cleared out could be met. It was pointed out that such housing was a critical necessity if the slum clearance program were to go forward effectively. .

In the light of current needs the President's recommendation for 35,000 units for each of the next 4 years is estimated by the conference to be a minimum requirement.

Mr. ROBIN. I have served the conference since 1919 as its technical adviser and consultant on slum clearance and urban redevelopment problems. The points to be presented deal primarily with technical matters and the references I shall make will be on H. R. 7839 as it passed the House.

With the permission of the committee, I should like to file with the committee a copy of the resolution enacted by the United States Conference of Mayors at its 1953 annual conference last September, and also a statement having to do with relocation public housing as presented to the White House Conference on Governmental Functions and Fiscal Resources called by the President last March.

We have been operating under the Housing Act of 1949 for nearly 5 years and under that act have begun to rid our cities of slum areas. Title I of that act provides Federal financial assistance to cities to help in this task and we have found that, basically, title I has been of great assistance in this endeavor. Cities throughout the United States have availed themselves of the opportunity provided under title I, and as a result we now see fine new structures and neighborhoods replacing dilapidated, disease-infested, slums. For many reasons, this program has been somewhat slow in getting started, but it is now at the point where it is well under way and where we can observe how effective it actually is.

It is important to note that the Housing Act of 1954 continues this program and that Administrator Cole has stated in his testimony that it is the intent of the proposed act to continue to aid cities in the clearance and redevelopment of slum areas. This is essential, for the complete clearance of our massive slum areas is the only really effective treatment for them. Rehabilitation and conservation are of value in many areas, but they are not suitable tools when dealing with extensive slum districs. It is essential that cities continue to clear out these slum areas and that projects consisting solely of slum clearance and redevelopment be continued as eligible projects under the Housing Act of 1954. We have had the assurance of the administrator that this will be the case.

Of course, we are glad to get that, because as we see it the programs are varied. One is not an alternate to the other. We need general slum clearance just as much as we need rehabilitation and preservation of other areas. It depends upon their individual suitability.

The Conference of Mayors supports the new aids to cities provided in the Housing Act for rehabilitation and conservation. The more vigorous enforcement of housing laws, the improvement of neighborhoods through the installation of municipal improvements, and the undertaking of programs to encourage the rehabilitation of homes are essential if a city is to undertake a comprehensive attack on its blighted areas. The financial position of our cities is such that they

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