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have been brought upon the stage, but for two reasons: the one because of men's diffidence in prejudging them as impossibilities; for it holdeth in those things which the poet saith,“ possunt quia posse “videntur;" for no man shall know how much may be done, except he believe much may be done. The other reason is, because they be but practises, base and inglorious, and of no great use, and therefore sequestred from reward of value; and on the other side, painful; so as the recompence balanceth not with the travel and suffering. And as to the will of man it is that which is most maniable and obedient; as that which admitteth most medicines to cure and alter it. The most sovereign of all is religion, which is able to change and transform it in the deepest and mostinwardinclinations and motions: and next to that is opinion and apprehension; whether it be infused by tradition and institution, or wrought in by disputation and persuasion : and the third is example, which transformeth the will of man into the similitude of that which is most obversant and familiar towards it: and the fourth is, when one affection is healed and corrected by another; as when cowardice is remedied by shame and dishonour, or sluggishness and backwardness by indignation and emulation; and so of the like: and lastly, when all these means, or any
of them, have new framed or formed human will, then doth custom and habit corroborate and confirm all the rest : therefore it is no marvel, though this faculty of the mind (of will and election) which inclineth affection and appetite, being but the incep
tions and rudiments of will, may be so well governed and managed, because it admitteth access to so divers remedies to be applied to it and to work upon it, the effects whereof are so many and so known as require no enumeration ; but generally they do issue as medicines do, into two kinds of cures; whereof the one is a just or true cure, and the other is called palliation: for either the labour and intention is to reform the affections really and truly, restraining them if they be too violent, and raising them if they be too soft and weak, or else it is to cover them; or if occasion be, to pretend them and represent them: of the former sort whereof the examples are plentiful in the schools of philosophers, and in all other institutions of moral virtue; and of the other sort, the examples are more plentiful in the courts of princes, and in all politic traffic, where it is ordinary to find not only profound dissimulations and suffocating the affections that no note or mark appear of them outwardly, but also lively simulations and affectations, carrying the tokens of passions which are not, as “Risus Jussus,” and “ Lachrymæ Coactæ,” and the like.
OF HELPS OF THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS.
The intellectual powers have fewer means to work upon them than the will or body of man; but the one that prevaileth, that is exercise, worketh more forcibly in them than in the rest.
The ancient habit of the philosophers ; " Si quis “ quærat, in utramque partem, de omni scibili.”
The exercise of scholars making verses extempore; “ Stans pede in uno."
The exercise of lawyers in memory narrative.
The exercise of sophists, and “ Jo. ad oppositum,” with manifest effect.
Artificial memory greatly holpen by exercise.
The exercise of buffoons, to draw all things to conceits ridiculous.
The means that help the understanding and faculties thereof are :
(Not example, as in the will, by conversation ; and here the conceit of imitation already digested, with the confutation, “ Obiter, si videbitur," of Tully's opinion, advising a man to take some one to imitate. Similitude of faces analysed.)
Arts, Logick, Rhetorick: the Ancients, Aristotle, Plato, Thætetus, Gorgias, Litigiosus, vel Sophista, Protagoras, Aristotle, Schola sua. Topicks, Elenches; Rhetoricks, Organon, Cicero, Hermogenes.
The Neotericks, Ramus, Agricola. Nil sacri Lullius, his Typocosmia, studying Cooper's Dictionary ; Mattheus Collection of proper words for Metaphors; Agrippa de vanitate, &c.
Que. If not here of imitation.
Collections preparative. Aristotle's similitude of a shoemaker's shop full of shoes of all sorts ; Demosthenes Exordia Concionum. Tully's precept, of Theses of all sorts, preparative.
The relying upon exercise, with the difference of using and tempering the instrument; and the simi
litude of prescribing against the laws of nature and of estate.
FIVE POINTS. 1. That exercises are to be framed to the life ; that is to say, to work ability in that kind, whereof a man in the course of action shall have most use.
2. The indirect and oblique exercises which do, “ per partes” and “ per consequentiam,” inable these faculties, which perhaps direct exercise at first, would but distort: and these have chiefly place where the faculty is weak, not “per se” but“ per accidens;" as if want of memory grow through lightness of wit and want of stayed attention, then the mathematics or the law helpeth ; because they are things wherein if the mind once roam it cannot recover.
3. Of the advantages of exercise ; as to dance with heavy shoes, to march with heavy armour and carriage; and the contrary advantage (in natures very dull and unapt), of working alacrity by framing an exercise with some delight or affection ;
" Veluti pueris dant crustula blandi
“ Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima.” 4. Of the cautions of exercise; as to beware, lest by evil doing (as all beginners do weakly), a man grow not and be inveterate in an ill habit ; and so take not the advantage of custom in perfection, but in confirming ill. Slubbering on the lute.
5. The marshalling, and sequel of sciences and practises : logick and rhetorick should be used to be read after poesy, history, and philosophy. First,
exercise to do things well and clean; after, promptly and readily.
The exercises in the universities and schools are of memory and invention ; either to speak by heart that which is set down verbatim, or to speak extempore; whereas, there is little use in action of either of both: but most things which we utter are neither verbally premeditate, nor merely extemporal; therefore exercise would be framed to take a little breathing and to consider of heads; and then to fit and form the speech extempore: this would be done in two manners, both with writing and tables, and without: for in most actions it is permitted and passable to use the note; whereunto if a man be not accustomed it will put him out.
There is no use of a narrative memory in academies, viz. with circumstances of times, persons, and places, and with names; and it is one art to discourse, and another to relate and describe ; and herein use and action is most conversant.
Also to sum up and contract is a thing in action of very general use.