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army at Fabius' inactivity, ch. 14. Fabius, having occupied the passes from Campania, Hannibal forces a pass in the night by the stratagem of torches bound to the horns of oxen, and returns to Apulia, ch. 15-18.

Roman successes in Spain: an important naval victory, ch. 19; ravaging of the coast and islands, ch. 20; incitement of the Carthaginian allies to revolt, ch. 21; and securing possession of the hostages given by the Spaniards to the Carthaginians, ch. 22.

Fabius' defensive policy disliked by the Romans, ch. 23. In the absence of Fabius at Rome Minucius secures a slight success, ch. 24. The discontented party at Rome, led by Varro, a man of mean origin, gives Minucius equal authority with Fabius. The army is divided between them, ch. 25–27. Hannibal entraps Minucius, who is rescued by Fabius, and then returns under Fabius' authority, ch. 28-30. Servilius makes an unsuccessful descent on Africa, ch. 31. The consuls continue Fabius' policy. Offer of gifts and assistance by the Neapolitans, ch. 32. Capture of a Carthaginian spy at Rome, ch. 33.

Elections held by an interrex. C. Terentius Varro and L. Aemilius Paulus chosen consuls, ch. 34, 35. An unprecedentedly large army is raised to crush Hannibal, ch. 36. Offers of help from Hiero of Syracuse, ch. 37. Fabius cautions Paulus against Hannibal and Varro, ch. 38, 39. The consuls go to Apulia, ch. 40. A slight success emboldens Varro, who is barely kept by Paulus from falling into a trap of Hannibal's, ch. 41, 42. Hannibal, in distress for supplies, encamps at Cannae and is followed by the consuls, ch. 43, 44. Battle of Cannae, ending in the total rout of the Romans and the death of Paulus. A few Romans only escape, ch. 45–50. Hannibal refuses Maharbal's advice to march on Rome, ch. 51. Surrender of the Roman camps to Hannibal. Kindness of Busa to the fugitives, ch. 52.

A plot of some young nobles to abandon their country thwarted by Scipio, ch. 53. Varro collects the fugitives. News of the battle reaches Rome. The Senate represses confusion and on receipt of dispatches limits the period of official mourning, ch. 54-56. Unchastity of two Vestals punished. Human sacrifices. Other measures, ch. 57. Hannibal releases the other prisoners and allows a

deputation of Romans to go to Rome to obtain ransom, ch. 58. Speech of the leader of the deputation in the Senate (see notes), ch. 59. Reply of T. Manlius Torquatus, (see notes,) ch. 60. Determination not to ransom the prisoners. Revolt of Roman allies. The Romans, however, are firm, and Varro on his return is thanked for “not having despaired of the republic,” ch. 61.

TITI LIVII

AB URBE CONDITA LIBER XXI.

In parte operis mei licet mihi praefari, quod in 1 principio summae totius professi plerique sunt rerum scriptores, bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quae umquam gesta sint, me scripturum, quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus ullae inter se civitates 2 gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum umquam virium aut roboris fuit, et haud ignotas belli artes inter sese sed expertas primo Punico conferebant bello, et adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt. Odiis etiam 3 prope maioribus certarunt quam viribus, Romanis indignantibus, quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis, quod superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse. Fama est etiam Hannibalem annorum 4 ferme novem pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, cum perfecto Africo bello exercitum eo traiecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum tactis sacris iure iurando adactum se, cum primum posset, hostem fore populo Romano. Angebant ingen- 5 tis spiritus virum Sicilia Sardiniaque amissae: nam et Siciliam nimis celeri desperatione rerum concessam, et Sardiniam inter motum Africae fraude Romanorum

1

2 stipendio etiam insuper inposito interceptam.

His

anxius curis ita se Africo bello, quod fuit sub recentem Romanam pacem, per quinque annos, ita deinde novem 2 annis in Hispania augendo Punico imperio gessit, ut appareret maius eum, quam quod gereret, agitare in animo bellum, et, si diutius vixisset, Hamilcare duce Poenos arma Italiae inlaturos fuisse, quaeHannibalis 3 ductu intulerunt. Mors Hamilcaris peropportuna et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum. Medius Hasdrubal inter patrem ac filium octo ferme annos imperium obtinuit, flore aetatis, uti ferunt, primo Hamilcari conciliatus, gener inde ob aliam indolem profecto animi 4 adscitus, et quia gener erat, factionis Barcinae opibus, quae apud milites plebemque plus quam modicae erant, 5 haud sane voluntate principum in imperio positus. Is plura consilio quam vi gerens hospitiis magis regulorum conciliandisque per amicitiam principum novis gentibus quam bello aut armis rem Carthaginiensem 6 auxit. Ceterum nihilo ei pax tutior fuit: barbarus eum quidam palam ob iram obtruncati ab eo domini interfecit, conprensusque ab circumstantibus haud alio, quam si evasisset, vultu, tormentis quoque cum laceraretur, eo fuit habitu oris, ut superante laetitia dolores. 7 ridentis etiam speciem praebuerit. Cum hoc Hasdrubale, quia mirae artis in sollicitandis gentibus imperioque suo iungendis fuerat, foedus renovaverat populus Romanus, ut finis utriusque imperii esset amnis Hiberus, Saguntinisque mediis inter imperia duorum populorum libertas servaretur.

3 In Hasdrubalis locum haud dubia res fuit, quin praerogativam militarem, qua extemplo iuvenis Hannibal in praetorium delatus imperatorque ingenti omnium

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