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EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Section 1009(b) of Pub. L. 99-570 provided that: "The amendment made by this section (amending this rule) shall take effect on the date of the taking effect of rule 35(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, as amended by section 215(b) of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (section 215(b) of Pub. L. 98-473, effective Nov. 1, 1987)."

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 1985

AMENDMENTS Section 2 of the Order of the Supreme Court dated Apr. 29, 1985, provided: “That the foregoing amendments to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (amending Rules 6, 11, 12.1, 12.2, 35, 45, 49, and 57) shall take effect on August 1, 1985 and shall govern all proceedings in criminal cases thereafter commenced and, insofar as just and practicable, all proceedings in criminal cases then pending. The amendment to Rule 35(b) shall be effective until November 1, 1986, when Section 215(b) of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98-473, approved October 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2015, goes into effect." See section 22 of Pub. L. 100-182, set out below, for application of Rule 35(b) to conduct occurring before effective date of sentencing guidelines.

Section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98-473, which originally provided for an effective date of Nov. 1, 1986 for the amendment to Rule 35 by section 215(b) of Pub. L. 98-473, was later amended to provide for an effective date of Nov. 1, 1987, with applicability only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment. See Effective Date note set out under section 3551 of this title.

APPLICATION OF RULE 35(b) TO CONDUCT OCCURRING BEFORE EFFECTIVE DATE OF SENTENCING GUIDELINES

Pub. L. 100-182, $ 22, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1271, provided that: “The amendment to rule 35(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure made by the order of the Supreme Court on April 29, 1985, shall apply with respect to all offenses committed before the taking effect of section 215(b) of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (section 215(b) of Pub. L. 98-473, effective Nov. 1, 1987)."

AUTHORITY TO LOWER A SENTENCE BELOW STATUTORY

MINIMUM FOR OLD OFFENSES Subd. (b) of this rule as amended by section 215(b) of Pub. L. 98-473 and subd. (b) of this rule as in effect before the taking effect of the initial set of guidelines promulgated by the United States Sentencing Commission pursuant to chapter 58 (8 991 et seq.) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, applicable in the case of an offense committed before the taking effect of such guidelines notwithstanding section 235 of Pub. L. 98-473, see section 24 of Pub. L. 100-182, set out as a note under section 3553 of this title.

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES-1985

AMENDMENT

Note to Subdivision (6) This amendment to Rule 35(b) conforms its language to the nonliteral interpretation which most courts have already placed upon the rule, namely, that it suffices that the defendant's motion was made within the 120 days and that the court determines the motion within a reasonable time thereafter. United States v. DeMier, 671 F.2d 1200 (8th Cir. 1982); United States v. Smith, 650 F.2d 206 (9th Cir. 1981); United States v. Johnson, 634 F.2d 94 (3d Cir. 1980); United States v. Mendoza, 581 F.2d 89 (5th Cir. 1978); United States V. Stollings, 516 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1975). Despite these decisions, a change in the language is deemed desirable to remove any doubt which might arise from dictum in some cases, e.g., United States v. Addonizio, 442 U.S. 178, 189 (1979), that Rule 35 only "authorizes District Courts to reduce a sentence within 120 days" and that this time period "is jurisdictional, and may not be extended." See United States v. Kajevic, 711 F.2d 767 (7th Cir. 1983), following the Addonizio dictum.

As for the "reasonable time" limitation, reasonableness in this context “must be evaluated in light of the policies supporting the time limitations and the reasons for the delay in each case.” United States v. Smith, supra, at 209. The time runs "at least for so long as the judge reasonably needs time to consider and act upon the motion." United States v. Stollings, supra, at 1288.

In some instances the court may decide to reduce a sentence even though no motion seeking such action is before the court. When that is the case, the amendment makes clear, the reduction must actually occur within the time specified.

This amendment does not preclude the filing of a motion by a defendant for further reduction of sentence after the court has reduced a sentence on its own motion, if filed within the 120 days specified in this rule.

1986 AMENDMENT Subd. (b). Pub. L. 99-570 substituted "in accordance with the guidelines and policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994 of title 28, United States Code. The court's authority to lower a sentence under this subdivision includes the authority to lower such sentence to a level below that established by statute as a minimum sentence" for “to the extent that such assistance is a factor in applicable guidelines or policy statements issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)".

1984 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 98-473 amended Rule 35 generally. Prior to amendment, rule read as follows:

“Rule 35. Correction or Reduction of Sentence

“(a) CORRECTION OF SENTENCE. The court may correct an illegal sentence at any time and may correct a sentence imposed in an illegal manner within the time provided herein for the reduction of sentence.

“(b) REDUCTION OF SENTENCE. A motion to reduce a sentence may be made, or the court may reduce a sentence without motion, within 120 days after the sentence is imposed or probation is revoked, or within 120 days after receipt by the court of a mandate issued upon affirmance of the judgment or dismissal of the appeal, or within 120 days after entry of any order or judgment of the Supreme Court denying review of, or having the effect of upholding, a judgment of conviction or probation revocation. The court shall determine the motion within a reasonable time. Changing a sentence from a sentence of incarceration to a grant of probation shall constitute a permissible reduction of sentence under this subdivision."

Rule 38. Stay of Execution

(a) DEATH. A sentence of death shall be stayed if an appeal is taken from the conviction or sentence.

(b) IMPRISONMENT. A sentence of imprisonment shall be stayed if an appeal is taken from the conviction or sentence and the defendant is released pending disposition of the appeal pursuant to Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure. If not stayed, the court may recommend to the Attorney General that the defendant be retained at, or transferred to, a place of confinement near the place of trial or the place where an appeal is to be heard, for a period reasonably necessary to permit the de

the place of trial or the place where an appeal is to be heard, for a period reasonably necessary to permit the defendant to assist in the preparation of an appeal to the court of appeals.

(3) Fine. A sentence to pay a fine or a fine and costs, if an appeal is taken, may be stayed by the district court or by the court of appeals upon such terms as the court deems proper. The court may require the defendant pending appeal to deposit the whole or any part of the fine and costs in the registry of the district court, or to give bond for the payment thereof, or to submit to an eramination of assets, and it may make any appropriate order to restrain the defendant from dissipating such defendant's assets.

(4) Probation. An order placing the defendant on probation may be stayed if an appeal is taken. If not stayed, the court shall specify when the term of probation shall commence. If the order is stayed the court shall fix the terms of the stay.

[(b) Bail.) (Abrogated Dec. 4, 1967, eff. July 1, 1968)

[(c) Application for Relief Pending Review.) (Abrogated Dec. 4, 1967, eff. July 1, 1968)

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES–1987

AMENDMENT

The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

fendant to assist in the preparation of an appeal to the court of appeals.

(c) FINE. A sentence to pay a fine or a fine and costs, if an appeal is taken, may be stayed by the district court or by the court of appeals upon such terms as the court deems proper. The court may require the defendant pending appeal to deposit the whole or any part of the fine and costs in the registry of the district court, or to give bond for the payment thereof, or to submit to an examination of assets, and it may make any appropriate order to restrain the defendant from dissipating such defendant's assets.

(d) PROBATION. A sentence of probation may be stayed if an appeal from the conviction or sentence is taken. If the sentence is stayed, the court shall fix the terms of the stay.

(e) CRIMINAL FORFEITURE, NOTICE TO VICTIMS, AND RESTITUTION. A sanction imposed as part of the sentence pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 3554, 3555, or 3556 may, if an appeal of the conviction or sentence is taken, be stayed by the district court or by the court of appeals upon such terms as the court finds appropriate. The court may issue such orders as may be reasonably necessary to ensure compliance with the sanction upon disposition of the appeal, including the entering of a restraining order or an injunction or requiring a deposit in whole or in part of the monetary amount involved into the registry of the district court or execution of a performance bond.

(f) DISABILITIES. A civil or employment disability arising under a Federal statute by reason of the defendant's conviction or sentence, may, if an appeal is taken, be stayed by the district court or by the court of appeals upon such terms as the court finds appropriate. The court may enter a restraining order or an injunction, or take any other action that may be reasonably necessary to protect the interest represented by the disability pending disposition of the appeal. (As amended Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ 215(c), 98 Stat. 2016; Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.) EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT; OFFENSES

COMMITTED PRIOR TO Nov. 1, 1987 Section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98-473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title, provided that the amendment of this rule is effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment. Prior to

amendment, this rule read as follows: Rule 38. Stay of Execution, and Relief Pending

Review (a) Stay of Execution.

(1) Death. A sentence of death shall be stayed if an appeal is taken.

(2) Imprisonment. A sentence of imprisonment shall be stayed if an appeal is taken and the defendant is released pending disposition of the appeal pursuant to Rule 9(6) of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure. If not stayed, the court may recommend to the Attorney General that the defendant be retained at, or transferred to, a place of confinement near

REFERENCES IN TEXT The Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, referred to in subd. (b), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1984 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(1), substituted “Stay of Execution” for “Stay of Execution, and Relief Pending Review" in rule catchline.

Subd. (a). Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(1), struck out subd. heading “(a) Stay of Execution".

Pub. L. 98-473, & 215(c)(3), (4), redesignated former subd. (a)(1) as (a), and inserted “from the conviction or sentence" after “is taken".

Subd. (b). Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(3), (5), redesignated former subd. (a)(2) as (b), and inserted "from the conviction or sentence" after “is taken".

Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(2), struck out subd. (b) relating to bail, which had been abrogated Dec. 4, 1967, eff. July 1, 1968.

Subd. (c). Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(3), redesignated former subd. (a)(3) as (c).

Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(2), struck out subd. (c) relating to application for relief pending review, which had been abrogated Dec. 4, 1967, eff. July 1, 1968.

Subd. (d). Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(c)(3), (6), redesignated former subd. (a)(4) as (d) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, subd. (a)(4) read as follows: “An order placing the defendant on probation may be stayed if an appeal is taken. If not stayed, the court shall specify when the term of probation shall commence. If the order is stayed the court shall fix the terms of the stay."

Subds. (e), (f). Pub. L. 98-473, $ 215(cX7), added subds. (e) and (f).

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IX. SUPPLEMENTARY AND SPECIAL

PROCEEDINGS

Rule 40. Commitment to Another District

(a) APPEARANCE BEFORE FEDERAL MAGISTRATE. If a person is arrested in a district other than that in which the offense is alleged to have been committed, that person shall be taken without unnecessary delay before the nearest available federal magistrate. Preliminary proceedings concerning the defendant shall be conducted in accordance with Rules 5 and 5.1, except that if no preliminary examination is held because an indictment has been returned or an information filed or because the defendant elects to have the preliminary examination conducted in the district in which the prosecution is pending, the person shall be held to answer upon a finding that such person is the person named in the indictment, information or warrant. If held to answer, the defendant shall be held to answer in the district court in which the prosecution is pending, provided that a warrant is issued in that district if the arrest was made without a warrant, upon production of the warrant or a certified copy thereof.

[See main edition for text of (6) and (c)] (d) ARREST OF PROBATIONER. If a person is arrested for a violation of probation in a district other than the district having probation jurisdiction, such person shall be taken without unnecessary delay before the nearest available federal magistrate. The federal magistrate shall:

(1) Proceed under Rule 32.1 if jurisdiction over the probationer is transferred to that district pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 3605;

[See main edition for text of (2)] (3) Otherwise order the probationer held to answer in the district court of the district having probation jurisdiction upon production of certified copies of the probation order, the warrant, and the application for the war. rant, and upon a finding that the person before the magistrate is the person named in the warrant.

(e) ARREST FOR FAILURE TO APPEAR. If a person is arrested on a warrant in a district other than that in which the warrant was issued, and the warrant was issued because of the failure of the person named therein to appear as required pursuant to a subpoena or the terms of that person's release, the person arrested shall be taken without unnecessary delay before the nearest available federal magistrate. Upon production of the warrant or a certified copy thereof and upon a finding that the person before the magistrate is the person named in the warrant, the federal magistrate shall hold the person to answer in the district in which the warrant was issued.

(f) RELEASE OR DETENTION. If a person was previously detained or conditionally released, pursuant to chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code, in another district where a warrant, information, or indictment issued, the federal magistrate shall take into account the decision previously made and the reasons set forth

therefor, if any, but will not be bound by that decision. If the federal magistrate amends the release or detention decision or alters the conditions of release, the magistrate shall set forth the reasons therefore ' in writing. (As amended Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ $ 209(c), 215(d), 98 Stat. 1986, 2016; Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.) EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT; OFFENSES

COMMITTED PRIOR TO Nov. 1, 1987 Section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98-473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title, provided that the amendment of subdivision (d)(1) of this rule is effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment. Prior to amendment, subdivi. sion (d)(1) read as follows:

(1) Proceed under Rule 32.1 if jurisdiction over the probationer is transferred to that district pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 3653; NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES-1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

1984 AMENDMENT Subd. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98-473 substituted “3605" for “3653".

Subd. (f). Pub. L. 98-473 substituted "Release or Detention" for "Bail” as the subdivision heading and, in text, substituted "If a person was previously detained or conditionally released, pursuant to chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code,” for “If bail was previously fixed", "decision previously made" for “amount of bail previously fixed”, “by that decision” for "by the amount of bail previously fixed”, and “amends the release or detention decision or alters the conditions of release" for "fixes bail different from that previously fixed".

Rule 41. Search and Seizure

(See main edition for text of (a) and (6)] (C) ISSUANCE AND CONTENTS.

(1) Warrant Upon Affidavit. A warrant other than a warrant upon oral testimony under paragraph (2) of this subdivision shall issue only on an affidavit or affidavits sworn to before the federal magistrate or state judge and establishing the grounds for issuing the warrant. If the federal magistrate or state judge is satisfied that grounds for the application exist or that there is probable cause to believe that they exist, that magistrate or state judge shall issue a warrant identifying the property or person to be seized and naming or describing the person or place to be searched. The finding of probable cause may be based upon hearsay evidence in whole or in part. Before ruling on a request for a warrant the federal magistrate or state judge may require the affiant to appear personally and may examine under oath the affiant and any witnesses the affiant may produce, provided that such proceeding shall be taken down by a court reporter or recording equip

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ment and made part of the affidavit. The warrant shall be directed to a civil officer of the United States authorized to enforce or assist in enforcing any law thereof or to a person so authorized by the President of the United States. It shall command the officer to search, within a specified period of time not to exceed 10 days, the person or place named for the property or person specified. The warrant shall be served in the daytime, unless the issuing authority, by appropriate provision in the warrant, and for reasonable cause shown, authorizes its execution at times other than daytime. It shall designate a federal magistrate to whom it shall be returned.

[See main edition for text of (2); (d)] (e) MOTION FOR RETURN OF PROPERTY. A person aggrieved by an unlawful search and seizure may move the district court for the district in which the property was seized for the return of the property on the ground that such person is entitled to lawful possession of the property which was illegally seized. The judge shall receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to the decision of the motion. If the motion is granted the property shall be restored and it shall not be admissible in evidence at any hearing or trial. If a motion for return of property is made or comes on for hearing in the district of trial after an indictment or information is filed, it shall be treated also as a motion to suppress under Rule 12.

[See main edition for text of ( to (h)] (As amended Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.)

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES—1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

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Rule 42. Criminal Contempt

(a) SUMMARY DISPOSITION. A criminal contempt may be punished summarily if the judge certifies that the judge saw or heard the conduct constituting the contempt and that it was committed in the actual presence of the court. The order of contempt shall recite the facts and shall be signed by the judge and entered of record.

(b) DISPOSITION UPON NOTICE AND HEARING. A criminal contempt except as provided in subdivision (a) of this rule shall be prosecuted on notice. The notice shall state the time and place of hearing, allowing a reasonable time for the preparation of the defense, and shall state the essential facts constituting the criminal contempt charged and describe it as such. The notice shall be given orally by the judge in open court in the presence of the defendant or, on application of the United States attorney or of an attorney appointed by the court for that purpose, by an order to show cause or an order of arrest. The defendant is entitled to a trial by jury in any case in which an act of Congress so provides. The defendant is entitled to admission to bail as provided in these rules. If the contempt charged involves disrespect to or criti. cism of a judge, that judge is disqualified from

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presiding at the trial or hearing except with the defendant's consent. Upon a verdict or finding of guilt the court shall enter an order fixing the punishment. (As amended Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.)

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES—1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

X. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Rule 43. Presence of the Defendant

[See main edition for text of (a)] (b) CONTINUED PRESENCE NOT REQUIRED. The further progress of the trial to and including the return of the verdict shall not be prevented and the defendant shall be considered to have waived the right to be present whenever a defendant, initially present,

(1) is voluntarily absent after the trial has commenced (whether or not the defendant has been informed by the court of the obligation to remain during the trial), or

(2) after being warned by the court that disruptive conduct will cause the removal of the defendant from the courtroom, persists in conduct which is such as to justify exclusion from the courtroom.

[See main edition for text of (c)] (As amended Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.)

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES—1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

Rule 44. Right to and Assignment of Counsel

(a) RIGHT TO ASSIGNED COUNSEL. Every defendant who is unable to obtain counsel shall be entitled to have counsel assigned to represent that defendant at every stage of the proceedings from initial appearance before the federal magistrate or the court through appeal, unless that defendant waives such appointment.

[See main edition for text of (6)] (c) JOINT REPRESENTATION. Whenever two or more defendants have been jointly charged pursuant to Rule 8(b) or have been joined for trial pursuant to Rule 13, and are represented by the same retained or assigned counsel or by retained or assigned counsel who are associated in the practice of law, the court shall promptly inquire with respect to such joint representation and shall personally advise each defendant of the right to the effective assistance of counsel, including separate representation. Unless it appears that there is good cause to believe no conflict of interest is likely to arise, the court shall take such measures as may be appropriate to protect each defendant's right to counsel. (As amended Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.)

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES—1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

Rule 45. Time

(a) COMPUTATION. In computing any period of time the day of the act or event from which the designated period of time begins to run shall not be included. The last day of the period so computed shall be included, unless it is a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday, or, when the act to be done is the filing of some paper in court, a day on which weather or other conditions have made the office of the clerk of the district court inaccessible, in which event the period runs until the end of the next day which is not one of the aforementioned days. When a period of time prescribed or allowed is less than 11 days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays shall be excluded in the computation. As used in these rules, "legal holiday” includes New Year's Day, Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and any other day appointed as a holiday by the President or the Congress of the United States, or by the state in which the district court is held.

nation of release are necessary to assure such person's presence during the trial or to assure that such person's conduct will not obstruct the orderly and expeditious progress of the trial.

(c) PENDING SENTENCE AND NOTICE OF APPEAL. Eligibility for release pending sentence or pending notice of appeal or expiration of the time allowed for filing notice of appeal, shall be in accordance with 18 U.S.C. $ 3143. The burden of establishing that the defendant will not flee or pose a danger to any other person or to the community rests with the defendant.

(d) JUSTIFICATION OF SURETIES. Every surety, except a corporate surety which is approved as provided by law, shall justify by affidavit and may be required to describe in the affidavit the property by which the surety proposes to justify and the encumbrances thereon, the number and amount of other bonds and undertakings for bail entered into by the surety and remaining undischarged and all the other liabilities of the surety. No bond shall be approved unless the surety thereon appears to be qualified.

(e) FORFEITURE.

[See main edition for text of (1)] (2) Setting aside. The court may direct that a forfeiture be set aside in whole or in part, upon such conditions as the court may impose, if a person released upon execution of an appearance bond with a surety is subsequently surrendered by the surety into custody or if it otherwise appears that justice does not require the forfeiture.

[See main edition for text of (b) to (d)) (e) ADDITIONAL TIME AFTER SERVICE BY MAIL. Whenever a party has the right or is required to do an act within a prescribed period after the service of a notice or other paper upon that party and the notice or other paper is served by mail, 3 days shall be added to the prescribed period. (As amended Apr. 29, 1985, eff. Aug. 1, 1985; Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.) NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES-1985

AMENDMENT The rule is amended to extend the exclusion of intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays to the computation of time periods less than 11 days. Under the current version of the Rule, parties bringing motions under rules with 10-day periods could have as few as 5 working days to prepare their motions. This change corresponds to the change being made in the comparable provision in Fed.R.Civ.P. 6(a).

The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., which becomes a legal holiday effective January 1986, has been added to the list of legal holidays enumerated in the Rule.

[See main edition for text of (3) and (4); (3) (g) SUPERVISION OF DETENTION PENDING TRIAL. The court shall exercise supervision over the detention of defendants and witnesses within the district pending trial for the purpose of eliminating all unnecessary detention. The attorney for the government shall make a biweekly report to the court listing each defendant and witness who has been held in custody pending indictment, arraignment or trial for a period in excess of ten days. As to each witness so listed the attorney for the government shall make a statement of the reasons why such witness should not be released with or without the taking of a deposition pursuant to Rule 15(a). As to each defendant so listed the attorney for the government shall make a statement of the reasons why the defendant is still held in custody.

(h) FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY. Nothing in this rule or in chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code, shall prevent the court from disposing of any charge by entering an order directing forfeiture of property pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 3142(c)(2)(K) if the value of the property is an amount that would be an appropriate sentence after conviction of the offense charged and if such forfeiture is authorized by statute or regulation.

NOTES OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RULES-1987

AMENDMENT The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

Rule 46. Release From Custody

(a) RELEASE PRIOR TO TRIAL. Eligibility for release prior to trial shall be in accordance with 18 U.S.C. $$ 3142 and 3144.

(b) RELEASE DURING TRIAL. A person released before trial shall continue on release during trial under the same terms and conditions as were previously imposed unless the court determines that other terms and conditions or termi

(As amended Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ 209(d), 98 Stat. 1987; Mar. 9, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987.)

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