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SECTION III. TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
The MILES system uses semiconductor laser beams to simulate actual weapon fire. An eyesafe invisible laser beam is sent out by each weapon's transmitter when it is fired. The laser beam is coded and simulates all of the weapon's capabilities including range, accuracy and destructive capability.
Laser detector systems are used to sense opposing fire. The detector systems register opposing laser beams and determine whether they have scored a near "NEAR MISS", "HIT" or "KILL". The systems activate alarms indicating the presence and damage of opposing fire.
The MILES system of laser beam transmitters and detectors allows safe realistic training exercises with a complete range of weaponry and vehicles.
M1 ABRAMS TANK CONFIGURATION
All weapons on the M1 Abrams Tank are equipped with laser transmitters that are fired using normal weapon operating procedures. The vehicle turret has special detector belts attached that sense opposing fire. A control console mounted inside the tank determines the extent of opposing fire and its effect. A flashing light (CVKI) mounted on the tank's exterior is activated by the control console when opposing fire is detected.
Crew members wear MWLD torso and helmet harnesses. These detect opposing fire directed against the individual crew member. When opposing fire is detected an audio alarm on the torso harness is set off.
MAIN GUN MILES FIRING
The main gun is fired using normal procedures. A Hoffman device is used to add realism to main gun firing. When the trigger is operated, both the Hoffman device and laser transmitter mounted in the gun breech fire together.
You must wait five seconds after firing the main gun before you can fire again. This simulates the time normally required to reload the weapon. The MILES system allows a basic load of 55 rounds for the 105 mm main gun and 40 rounds for the 120 mm main gun.
After firing the main gun, you can check to see how many rounds the MILES system has left. This is done by turning the switch in the control console to main gun, pressing the display button, and reading the displayed number.
M240 COAX MACHINE GUN
The M240 coaxial machine gun is fired using normal procedures. The gun is loaded with blank ammunition. The sound of blank fire is sensed by a microphone which triggers the coax MG transmitter in the main gun breech. The laser transmitter will operate as long as blank ammunition is being fired.
LOADER'S M240 MACHINE GUN
The loader's M240 machine gun is aimed and fired using normal procedures. The gun is loaded with blank ammunition. The sound of blank fire is sensed by the M240 MG transmitter mounted on the machine gun's barrel. The laser transmitter will operate as long as blank ammunition is being fired.
COMMANDER'S M2 MACHINE GUN
The commander's M2 machine gun is aimed and fired using normal procedures. The gun is loaded with blank ammunition. The sound of blank fire is sensed by the M2 MG transmitter mounted on the machine gun's cooling jacket. The laser transmitter will operate as long as blank ammunition is being fired.
The laser transmitters on all MILES-equipped weapons can be fired without using blank ammunition or the Hoffman device. Usually, this dry-fire mode is used only to test and boresight the equipment. To operate M240 and M2 machine gun transmitters in dry fire mode a controller key must be used to set the transmitter. A dry fire trigger cable is used to fire those transmitters. A dry fire plug is used for testing the coax machine gun.
VEHICLE DETECTION SYSTEM
Three detector belts containing 20 detectors are mounted on the turret of the M1 tank. Opposing fire is sensed by the detectors. They generate electrical signals which are fed to a decoder in the control console.
The decoder identifies the type of weapon that fired the opposing laser beam. It determines whether the laser shot was accurate enough to cause a "HIT" or whether a "NEAR MISS" occurred. It also determines if the weapon was capable of causing damage to the target (an M16 rifle, for example, cannot disable a tank) and the probability of "KILL" for that weapon. The probability of "KILLING" a target is different for each attacking weapon.
VEHICLE DETECTION SYSTEM (CONT)
If a detector on the M1 is hit by laser fire, one of three things will happen:
1. Two tones will sound in the vehicle intercom and CVKI light mounted on the tank exterior will flash two times. This means a "NEAR MISS" occurred.
One to three tones will sound in the intercom and CVKI light will flash one to three times. This means a "HIT" but not a "KILL" occurred.
The intercom tone will sound continuously and CVKI light will flash continuously.
The tank crew can determine what type of weapon has fired on them by switching the MILES control console and pushing the display button. A code number will appear on the display indicating the attacking weapon following a "HIT" or "KILL." No code number appears for a "NEAR MISS."
The intercom tone is turned off after a "KILL" by removing the orange key from the M2 machine gun transmitter, inserting it in the control console receptacle and turning it. If the key is removed from the console the intercom tone will begin again. The CVKI light continues to flash until reset by a controller.
MWLD DETECTION SYSTEM
The M1 gunner, loader and tank commander each wear a helmet harness equipped with laser detectors and a torso harness equipped with laser detectors and an audio alarm. The driver does not wear a harness.
If the detectors on a crew member sense opposing MILES-equipped weapon fire, one of two things will happen:
The alarm on the harness sounds briefly. This means a "NEAR MISS" occurred.
The alarm sounds continuously. This means the soldier has been "KILLED". He must use a yellow key to turn off the alarm.
Two spare yellow keys are provided with the system and a third key is used in the M240 machine gun. The first two crew members "KILLED" use the spare yellow keys to turn off their alarms. The third crew member "KILLED" uses the key from the M240 transmitter. Removing the key from the transmitter prevents it from firing.
SECTION I. DESCRIPTION AND USE OF OPERATOR'S CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
MILES/M1 CONTROLS AND INDICATORS.
The MILES M1 controls and indicators are
only those associated with the control console (Loader's Control Assembly other controls and indicators, such as triggers and arming switches, are those actually associated with the M1 weapons.
CONTROL CONSOLE ASSEMBLY (Loader's Control Assembly