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OF

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE,

OF THE

State of Pennsylvania,

FOR THE

PROMOTION OF THE MECHANIC ARTS.

DEVOTED TO

MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE, CIVIL ENGINEERING, THE ARTS
AND MANUFACTURES, AND THE RECORDING OF AMERICAN

AND OTHER PATENTED INVENTIONS.

EDITED

BY THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS

OF THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE.

COLLABORATORS.
For Physical Science.

For Engineering and Architecture.
ALEX. DALLAS BACHE, LL.D.

THOMPSON S. BROWN, Civ. Eng.
JOAN C. CRESSON, A. M.

CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Civ. Eng.
THOMAS EWBANK,

WILLIAM H. EMORY, U.S. Top. Eng.
JOHN F. FRAZER, A. M.

ELLWOOD MORRIS, Civ. Eng.
JOHN GRISCOM, LL. D.

SOLOMON W. ROBERTS, Civ. Eng.
JOEL B. REYNOLDS, A. M.

WILLIAM E. MORRIS, Civ. Eng.
RICHARD A. TILGHMAN, A. M.

T. U. WALTER, Prof. Arch. Fr. Inst.
For Manufactures and Commerce.

For Mining and Metallurgy.
JAMES C. BOOTH, A. M.

MARTIN H. BOYE, Analytical Chem.
FREDERICK FRALEY.

THEODORE F. MOSS, Min. Eng.
SAMUEL V. MERRICK.

RICHARD C. TAYLOR.
JOHN H. TOWNE.

SAMUEL S. HALDEMAN,

Reporter of American Patents,
C. M. KELLER, laté Éxaminer, Patent Office, Washington.

THIRD SERIES.

Vol. XVIII.
WHOLE NO. VOL. XLVIII.

C PHILADELPHIA:
PUBLISHED BY THE PRANKLIN INSTITUTE, AT THEIR HALL.

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JOURNAL

OF

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE

OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA

FOR THE

PROMOTION OF THE MECHANIC ARTS.

JULY, 1849.

CIVIL ENGINEERING.

Contributions to Railway Statistics, in 1846, 1847, and 1848. By HYDE

CLARKE, Esq. No. 1.Passengers and Fares. Having published an analysis of the railway returns for 1845, I have taken the earliest opportunity after the appearance of those of 1846 and 1847, of giving a similar analysis of them, under the same title of “Contributions to Railway Statistics,” which I hope may prove equally acceptable to practical men as the former series.

The following are the totals of each class of passengers in the years ending 30th June. 1844. 1845. 1846.

1847. 1st class, 4,875,3321 5,474,163 6,160,3541 6,572,714 2nd class, 12,235,686 14,325,825 16,931,0653 18,699,288 3rd class,

8,583,085} 13,135,820 18,506,527} 22,850,803] Mixed,

2,069,498] 855,4453 2,193,126 3,229,357

Altogether, 27,763,6021 33,791,253.} 43,790,9837 51,352,163 The amount received for each class, in each year, was as follows: 1844. 1845. 1846.

1847. 1st class, £1,432,688 £1,516,805 £1,661,898 £1,675,759 2nd class,

1,375,679 1,598,115 1,937,946 2,048,080 3rd class,

483,069 651,903 1,032,206 1,286,710 Mixed, 147,858 209,518 93,164 146,733

Altogether, £3,439,294 £3,976,341 £4,725,215

Vol. XVIII.-THIRD SERIES.- No. 1.-JULY, 1849.

£5,148,002

1

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per cent.

The yearly increase in numbers on each class of passengers, is as follows:

1845.
1846.

1847.
1st class, 12 per cent. 12 per cent. 7

per

cent. 2d class, 17

18

10
3rd class,
50
41

23
Altogether, 21

24

17 The yearly increase in money on each class of passengers, is as follows:

1845.
1846.

1847.
1st class, 6 per cent.

9 per cent.
2d class,
16
21

6
3rd class, 34

58

24 Altogether, 16

18

9 It is to be observed that no deductions can be drawn from these figures, as the Railway Department returns are defective and informal.

The gross returns in each year from passengers, goods, &c., were as follows: 1842-3,

£4,535, 189 1843–4,

5,074,674 1844–5,

6,209,714 1845-6,

7,565,569 1846–7,

8,510,886 The capital expended on railways has been likewise given by Mr. Hackett, from which we can learn the amount expended in each year. 1842, £52,380,100 whole capital,

expended. 1843, 57,635,100

£5,255,000
1844, 63,489,100

6,844,000
1845,
71,646,100

8,157,000
1846, 83,165,100

12,519,000 1847, 109,528,800

26,363,700 The total amount of railway expenditure from 1842 to the end of 1847, was £57,548,700. The total amount of railway income in those years, has been: 1842,

£4,341,781 1843,

4,827,655 1844,

5,584,982 1845,

6,649,224 1846,

7,664,874 1847,

8,949,681 Add from railway returns,

865,984

C

Altogether,

£38,884,181 Of course the whole of this income cannot be treated as real capital, no more can the whole of the expenditure; but it is a significant fact, that while the whole expenditure has been £57,548,700, the

whole income has been £38,884,181, or more than two-thirds of that amount. This is deserving the attention of those who direct their attention towards the subject of railway capital.

In "Irish Wants and Practical Remedies,” by Humphrey Brown, Esq., M. P., (p. 63,) is given a table of the estimated passenger and goods traffic of several English lines, as given before the House of Commons. This I have extended. The results are as follows:

Passengers. Goods. Tons.
Estimated traffic on 851 miles, 4,135,836 1,038,504
Realised traffic, 1845,

10,868,503 2,751,180

Excess over estimates,

6,732,667 1,712,676 Increase per cent.

160

170 In Mr. Brown's book on a length of 702 miles, the same increase of per centage is shown, namely, 160 per cent. on passengers, and 170 on goods.

The whole traffic in 1845 was 33,791,253) passengers, and of goods, &c., 11,600,000 tons. Supposing the proportions to be the same, the number of passengers carried in 1845 more than was provided with means of conveyance before the existence of railways, was 20,800,000, and the number of tons of goods conveyed was 7,200,000. Thus the railways not only accommodated the full number of passengers for whom conveyances already existed, but carried the above enormous number in addition, besides a great quantity of goods. It will be found that this calculation is, however, far from representing the amount of accommodation now afforded.

Taking the latter returns, where they are available, we shall find the increase still greater, as in 1846, for instance:

Passengers.

Goods. Tons. Estimated traffic,

4,135,836 1,038,504 Realised traffic, 1846,

13,718,503 3,530,441

Excess over estimates,

9,572,667 2,492,937 Increase per cent.,

230

250 The traffic on these lines stands as follows:

Passengers.

Goods. Tons. Estimated,

4,135,836 1,038,504 Realised, 1845,

10,868,503 2,751,180 1846,

14,078,697 3,530,441 The lines for which there are separate returns in 1847, are as follows: Great Western, &c.

231 miles. Glasgow and Ayr,

18 Lancaster and Preston,

20 Dundee and Arbroath,

163 Sheffield and Manchester, 44. South Eastern,

67

2977 "

The traffic stands thus:

Estimated,
Realised 1845,

Passengers. 2,378,995 5,138,041 7,006,625 7,382,586

Goods. Tons.

529,618
604,641

891,333 1,236,081

1846, 1647,

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