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- 6 consilium migrandi ab Tarquiniis cepit. Roma est ad id potissimum visa: in novo populo, ubi omnis repentina atque ex virtute nobilitas sit, futurum locum forti ac strenuo viro; regnasse Tatium Sabinum, arcessitum in regnum Numam a Curibus, et Ancum Sabina matre 7 ortum nobilemque una imagine Numae esse. (Facile persuadet ut cupido honorum et cui Tarquinii materna tantum patria esset.)

8 Sublatis itaque rebus amigrant Romam. Ad Ianiculum forte ventum erat. Ibi ei carpento sedenti cum uxore aquila suspensis demissa leniter alis pilleum aufert, superque carpentum cum magno clangore volitans rursus, velut ministerio divinitus missa, capiti apte reponit,

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6. potissimum, the best place; cf. Gr. 189. c.— repentina, new; i.e. suddenly arisen." ex virtute, dependent on worth. futurum : inf. depending on the word of saying (thinking) implied in visa est: see Gr. 336. 2, N. 2.-regnasse: emphasized as referring back to locum, showing what chances there were for foreigners. - Ancum: i.e. even he was almost a foreigner, and hardly more than a 'new man' in the sense of later times. -matre: the unnamed daughter of Numa; cf. 32. I.- - nobilem: here used in the later sense, of a person whose ancestors had held a curule office. Such a person had the ius imaginum, the right to put up the likeness of the ancestor in his atrium. -una: the number of such likenesses was an important factor in determining social and political prestige. Numae, that of Numa.

7. cupido... cui esset: notice the parallelism of the phrase and the clause, a good illustration of the

adjective nature of the characteristic subjunctive clause. materna: i.e. and therefore he had no special love for that city. esset: attracted by the predicate patria; see Gr. 204. b.

8. Ianiculum: coming from the Etruscan side to cross by the pons sublicius (see 33. 6).—carpento: a covered travelling wagon. Probably this is mentioned in the story to give greater probability to the supposed divine interposition. The ablative without in, as in poetry. — suspensis, etc.: i.e. not by a sudden swoop, as of a predatory bird, but deliberately as a divine messenger. The order is artificial. — pilleum: the felt cap often worn by travellers. It is sometimes confounded with the petasus, or felt hat, and may possibly be so here, as the latter was more commonly used by travellers. clangore: probably of the noise of his wings, but possibly of screaming also.· ministerio dative of purpose, belonging rather to the earlier language and poetry. Cf. Gr. 233. – sublimis: see Gr. 191.

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inde sublimis abit. Accepisse id augurium laeta dicitur 9 Tanaquil, perita, ut vulgo Etrusci, caelestium prodigiorum mulier. Excelsa et alta sperare complexa virum iubet: eam alitem, ea regione caeli, et eius dei nuntiam venisse, circa summum culmen hominis auspicium fecisse, levasse humano superpositum capiti decus ut divinitus eidem redderet!

Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes urbem in- 10 gressi sunt, domicilioque ibi comparato L. Tarquinium Priscum edidere nomen. Romanis conspicuum eum 11 novitas divitiaeque faciebant et ipse fortunam benigno adloquio, comitate invitandi, beneficiisque quos poterat sibi conciliando adiuvabat, donec in regiam quoque de eo fama perlata est. Notitiamque eam brevi apud re- 12

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etc. the emphatic position of these words represents a direct form like 'excelsa' inquit 'spera, complexa virum. complexa: see note on relicta, 2.

ea regione: i.e. the favorable side. eius dei: i.e. of Jupiter. venisse: the clauses in the infinitive contain the grounds of hope. The preceding main clause would properly be a result, ut sperare possis, correlative to the demonstratives eam, ea, eius, but the account represents the colloquial form used by the woman herself. Of course the whole proceeding meant that he would gain a crown for his head, instead of the cap.

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L.

10. has, such. — domicilio, etc. : i.e. establishing themselves there, not merely taking a house. Tarquinium: probably called Lucius because of the name (or, rather, title) Lucumo. It is possible that the word may have originally been formed from Lucumo. The derivation of Roman proper names is very obscure. The gentile name is doubtless formed from Tarquinii. Priscum: this part of the name is certainly Latin, but its application is uncertain.

11. ipse: opposed to the accidental advantages just mentioned.

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fortunam: i.e. his rise in social position. adloquio, comitate, beneficiis: the means of conciliando, which is itself the means of adiuvabat. · comitate, etc.: i.. by hospitably entertaining his new acquaintances. adiuvabat, continued to improve. regiam: i.e. he made himself so conspicuous socially, that the king heard of him and made his acquaintance (notitiam).

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gem liberaliter dextreque obeundo officia in familiaris. amicitiae adduxerat iura, ut publicis pariter ac privatis consiliis bello domique interesset et per omnia expertus postremo tutor etiam liberis regis testamento institue

retur.

Regnavit Ancus annos quattuor et viginti, cuilibet superiorum regum belli pacisque et artibus et gloria par. Iam filii prope puberem aetatem erant. Eo magis Tarquinius instare, ut quam primum comitia regi creando 2 fierent. Quibus indictis sub tempus pueros venatum ablegavit. Isque primus et petisse ambitiose regnum et orationem dicitur habuisse ad conciliandos plebis ani3 mos compositam: cum se non rem novam petere, quippe qui non primus, quod quisquam indignari mirarive posset, sed tertius Romae peregrinus regnum adfectet; et Tatium non ex peregrino solum, sed etiam ex hoste regem factum, et Numam ignarum urbis non petentem in

12. officia: i.e. loyal services as a courtier. — in ... iura : i.e. he raised the mere acquaintance to an intimate friendship.expertus: passive; cf. Gr. 135. b.

ELECTION AND REIGN OF TAR

QUIN.

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35. iam, by this time. gis: because one of them might claim the right to be elected, if they were of age. -regi: see Gr. 299. b.-fierent: of course through an interrex.

2. tempus: set for the comitia. -petisse ambitiose: to have canvassed (electioneered), as candidates in later times. The whole story, as it lies in Livy's mind, is derived from the later republic, when the commons were all-powerful. — orationem in a contio, when candidates used to present their claims. ciliandos: cf. Aen. VI. 816.

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3. cum: sc. memoraret, which is forgotten in the long account of the discourse, and picked up again in another form in 6. The whole passage is put in to explain compositam.rem novam: i.e. election to the throne as a stranger. quisquam: the force of non continued through the whole occasions the use of quisquam rather than aliquis. The same idea excuses -ve also. posset: potential present thrown back into past time. The rest of the discourse retains its time (see Gr. 336. B, a), but this one verb, on account of its being contrary to fact, goes into the imperfect. The close connection of the potential subjunctive and the characteristic construction is seen in this clause (cf. Gr. 319, head note). The meaning is almost, So that anybody could feel indignant at it' (cf. quisquam and -ve).—igna

regnum ultro accitum; se, ex quo sui potens fuerit, 4 Romam cum coniuge ac fortunis omnibus commigrasse, maiorem partem aetatis eius, qua civilibus officiis fungantur homines, Romae se quam in vetere patria vixisse ; domi militiaeque sub haud paenitendo magistro, ipso 5 Anco rege, Romana se iura, Romanos ritus didicisse; obsequio et observantia in regem cum omnibus, benignitate erga alios cum rege ipso certasse. Haec eum haud 6 falsa memorantem ingenti consensu populus Romanus regnare iussit.

Ergo virum cetera egregium secuta, quam in petendo habuerat, etiam regnantem ambitio est, nec minus regni sui firmandi quam augendae rei publicae memor centum in patres legit, qui deinde minorum gentium sunt appellati, factio haud dubia regis, cuius beneficio in curiam venerant. Bellum primum cum Latinis gessit et oppi- 7 dum ibi Apiolas vi cepit, praedaque inde maiore quam

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4. ex quo: sc. tempore. potens, his own master, freed from a guardian.

5. paenitendo: the somewhat rare personal use of paenitet. — iura, referring to politics; ritus: referring to religion. didicisse: whereby he was qualified to be king; obsequio, etc.: wherefore he was a worthy citizen. The whole is conceived in the style of a later electioneering address.

6. haec with a change of the form of the sentence, as if memoraret had already been used. populus: with a confusion of ideas between the plebs (2) and the proper populus Romanus, the official body

of burghers. iussit: the technical term for a vote (cf. 22. 1). — ergo, accordingly, as he had been elected by the lower orders. cetera: see Gr. 240. b. — ambitio: alluding to his popular measures in favor of the lower orders. - nec minus, etc.: i.e. he had two motives, one to strengthen his party, and the other to strengthen the government by adding to its great council.minorum, etc.: this distinction between senators remained, but it was only a nominal one, with no difference of privileges. The most various accounts are given of the precise change made by Tarquin, and apparently all authentic information on the early constitution had been lost long before Livy's time. -factio, a party, in opposition to the older families in the senate. haud dubia, sure to

be.

quanta belli fama fuerat revecta ludos opulentius in8 structiusque quam priores reges fecit. Tunc primum circo, qui nunc Maximus dicitur, designatus locus est. Loca divisa patribus equitibusque, ubi spectacula sibi 9 quisque facerent, fori appellati. Spectavere furcis duodenos ab terra spectacula alta sustinentibus pedes. Ludicrum fuit equi pugilesque, ex Etruria maxime acciti. Sollemnes deinde annui mansere ludi, Romani magnique Io varie appellati. Ab eodem rege et circa forum privatis aedificanda divisa sunt loca, porticus tabernaeque factae. 36 Muro quoque lapideo circumdare urbem parabat, cum Sabinum bellum coeptis intervenit. Adeoque ea subita res fuit ut prius Anienem transirent hostes quam obviam ire ac prohibere exercitus Romanus posset. Itaque 2 trepidatum Romae est. Et primo dubia victoria magna utrimque caede pugnatum est; reductis deinde in castra hostium copiis datoque spatio Romanis ad comparandum de integro bellum, Tarquinius, equitem maxime suis

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10. et: i.e. as well as the arrangements of the Circus Maximus. aedificanda: see Gr. 294. d. porticus: these were arcades, in which the business and outdoor intercourse of the Romans regularly took place. They were always a favorite form of decoration for cities.

tabernae: simple booths or shops for retail wares, such as are still found in many cities of Europe. As the remains appear in Pompeii, they are little stalls not larger than a market-stall, with the front entirely open, having a counter flush with the street, accessible to persons on the sidewalks.

36. coeptis: a substantive, as often in poetry and late Latin; cf. orsis, Pref. 13.- intervenit: indic. with cum inversum'; see Gr. 325. b. posset: see Gr. 327.

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