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Romanae in urbem sumptus funeri defuit. plebs sextantibus conlatis in capita.

Extulit eum

34 Consules deinde T. Geganius P. Minucius facti. Eo anno cum et foris quieta omnia a bello essent et domi sanata discordia, aliud multo gravius malum civitatem 2 invasit, caritas primum annonae ex incultis per secessionem plebis agris, fames deinde, qualis clausis solet; 3 ventumque ad interitum servitiorum utique et plebis esset, ni consules providissent dimissis passim ad frumentum coemendum non in Etruriam modo, dextris ab Ostia litoribus, laevoque per Volscos mari usque ad Cumas, sed quaesitum in Siciliam quoque: adeo finiti4 morum odia longinquis coegerant indigere auxiliis. Frumentum Cumis cum coemptum esset, naves pro bonis Tarquiniorum ab Aristodemo tyranno, qui heres erat, retentae sunt. In Volscis Pomptinoque ne emi quidem potuit; periculum quoque ab impetu hominum ipsis fru5 mentatoribus fuit. Ex Tuscis frumentum Tiberi venit: eo sustentata est plebs. Incommodo bello in tam artis commeatibus vexati forent, ni Volscos iam moventes 6 arma pestilentia ingens invasisset. Ea clade conterritis hostium animis, ut etiam ubi ea remisisset terrore aliquo tenerentur, et Velitris auxere numerum colono

agreed. extulit: cf. efferri, 8. 8. The first place is given to the word by a rhetorical emphasis: "This great benefactor hadn't money for his funeral; he was buried by,' etc. -sextantibus: a little copper coin worth one-sixth of the as, but used here to express what must have been at the time referred to a piece (or amount) of copper merely. — in capita: the use of the preposition in this formula comes from the idea of assessment, wherein the amount is 'imposed upon' the contributors.

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rum Romani, et Norbam in montis novam coloniam, quae arx in Pomptino esset, miserunt.

M. Minucio deinde et A. Sempronio consulibus magna 7 vis frumenti ex Sicilia advecta, agitatumque in senatu quanti plebi daretur. Multi venisse tempus premendae 8 plebis putabant reciperandique iura, quae extorta secessione ac vi patribus essent. In primis Marcius Coriolanus, hostis tribuniciae potestatis, 'Si annonam' in- 9 quit 'veterem volunt, ius pristinum reddant patribus. Cur ego plebeios magistratus, cur Sicinium potentem video, sub iugum missus, tamquam ab latronibus redemptus ? Egone has indignitates diutius patiar quam 10 necesse est? Tarquinium regem qui non tulerim, Sicinium feram? Secedat nunc, avocet plebem: patet via in Sacrum montem aliosque colles. Rapiant frumenta

Fruan

ex agris, quem ad modum tertio anno rapuere. tur annona, quam furore suo fecere. Audeo dicere hoc II malo domitos ipsos potius cultores agrorum fore, quam ut armati per secessionem coli prohibeant.' Haud tam 12 facile dictu est faciendumne fuerit, quam potuisse arbitror fieri, ut condicionibus laxandi annonam et tribuniciam potestatem et omnia invitis iura imposita patres demerent sibi.

Et senatui nimis atrox visa sententia est et plebem 85

above the Pomptine marshes, not far beyond Cora and Velitrae.

9. ego: the common emphatic use of the first personal pronoun in colloquial language. - sub iugum missus: in allusion to the ignominious surrender of the nobles.

10. Tarquinium . . . Sicinium: contrasting their respective positions, the one a great king, the other a low plebeian. II. quam ut: cf. 15. 2 n.

12. faciendum, etc.: i.e. whether it would have been a good thing to do, as that it could have been done.

ut: the regular construction after facere.-imposita... demerent: these rights of the people are regarded as burdens on the nobles.

WRATH OF THE PLEBS. BANISH-
MENT OF COriolanus.
85. et plebem: not that any of
them were present in the senate, as

ira prope armavit: fame se iam sicut hostes peti, cibo victuque fraudari; peregrinum frumentum, quae sola alimenta ex insperato fortuna dederit, ab ore rapi, nisi Gnaeo Marcio vincti dedantur tribuni, nisi de tergo plebis Romanae satisfiat. Eum sibi carnificem novum ex2 ortum, qui aut mori aut servire iubeat. In exeuntem e curia impetus factus esset, ni peropportune tribuni diem dixissent. Ibi ira est suppressa: se iudicem quisque, se dominum vitae necisque inimici factum vi3 debat. Contemptim primo Marcius audiebat minas tribunicias: auxilii non poenae ius datum illi potestati, plebisque non patrum tribunos esse. Sed adeo infensa

erat coorta plebs ut unius poena defungendum esset 4 patribus. Restiterunt tamen adversa invidia, usique sunt qua suis quisque, qua totius ordinis viribus. Ac primo temptata res est, si dispositis clientibus absterrendo singulos a coitionibus conciliisque disicere rem

the tribunes were later, but they would hear of the speech; cf. III. 41. 4. - fame: i.e. they were to be starved out like a besieged city. The figure is of hunger used as a weapon (cf. spiculo petit, 20. 2), but is not felt very strongly.

2. diem dixissent: this is the first instance of a capital trial instituted by the tribunes. The assemblies of the people had jurisdiction of such cases, and in order to give a fair trial, the accusing magistrate announced that on a certain day (diem dicere) he should bring in a bill against the offender. The charge against Coriolanus is not given by Livy, and varies in other writers, but it is impliedly his conduct in the senate.

3. auxilii, etc.: i.e. he claimed that the power of the tribunes was only remedial, and that their present action was, as we should say,

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possent. Vniversi deinde processere quidquid erat 5 patrum reos diceres precibus plebem exposcentes, unum sibi civem, unum senatorem, si innocentem absolvere nollent, pro nocente donarent. Ipse cum die 6 dicta non adesset, perseveratum in ira est. Damnatus absens in Volscos exsulatum abiit, minitans patriae hostilesque iam tum spiritus gerens. Venientem Volsci benigne excepere benigniusque in dies colebant, quo maior ira in suos eminebat crebraeque nunc querellae nunc minae percipiebantur. Hospitio utebatur Atti 7 Tulli. Longe is tum princeps Volsci nominis erat, Romanisque semper infestus. Ita cum alterum vetus odium, alterum ira recens stimularet, consilia conferunt de Romano bello. Haud facile credebant plebem suam 8 impelli posse ut totiens infeliciter temptata arma cape

ponents, precisely as is done in modern times, so that there should be no concerted action. This measure apparently failed. — clientibus: there was evidently up to this time an order distinct from the plebs, and under the control of the aristocracy, but what the difference was is uncertain. As each house had its own, the institution may have had its origin in the old clan constitution, while the plebeians were newcomers independent of the clan system. The freedmen afterwards took the place of the clients, and the position of the two classes may have been similar.

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diceres, you would have said; see Gr. 311. a. pro nocente, etc.: i.e. pardon him for their sake, as an act of grace.

6. ipse: notice the force of the emphasis, But after all these entreaties of his colleagues C. himself did not appear, and taking this as proof that he was not humbled, they refused to be mollified.'- iam tum, even then, before he joined the Volscian arms. - quo, as, in proportion crebraeque, etc. i.e. the more he complained and threatened.

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7. hospitio, etc.: the force of the emphasis is, 'the person with whom he stayed was,' etc., explaining the manner in which the plan of war was set on foot. Livy might have said, 'A. Twas the person,' etc., but that would have laid stress on the individual instead of on the circumstance of his intimacy with Coriolanus, which gave an occasion for their plans.

8. haud facile, etc.: 'they didn't

rent. Multis saepe bellis, pestilentia postremo amissa iuventute fractos spiritus esse; arte agendum in exoleto iam vetustate odio, ut recenti aliqua ira exacerbarentur animi.

36 Ludi forte ex instauratione magni Romae parabantur. Instaurandi haec causa fuerat: ludis mane servum quidam pater familiae nondum commisso spectaculo sub furca caesum medio egerat circo. Coepti inde ludi, velut 2 ea res nihil ad religionem pertinuisset. Haud ita multo post Tito Latinio, de plebe homini, somnium fuit. Visus Iuppiter dicere sibi ludis praesultatorem displicuisse ; nisi magnifice instaurarentur ii ludi, periculum urbi fore; 3 iret, ea consulibus nuntiaret. Quamquam haud sane liber erat religione animus, verecundia tamen maiesta

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A GREAT SPECTACLE AT ROME,
AND A CURIOUS REASON FOR IT.

86. ludi magni: apparently vowed by Postumius in the Latin war. It was not yet a regular festival, as it afterwards became, with the name ludi Romani. instauratione: in any sacred observance, if anything faulty occurred, the whole had to be gone over again, for which the regular term was instaurare, a word of doubtful etymology. ludis: cf. bello Latino, 26. 2. — commisso: a natural word, since the games consisted of races. caesum: not to be distinguished here from a present passive participle, which the Latin lacks; cf. Gr. 290. b. Cicero uses cum caederetur (de Div. I. 55).

-ad religionem, with the sacred games; properly, with the religious character of the proceedings; i.e. with the desecration of them. The

word appears to have originally meant the noticing and taking care of any portentous appearance, but came to have a wide range, sometimes meaning, as here, a religious difficulty, sometimes the feeling or perception of it, as in 3, sometimes (in a bad sense) superstition, sometimes (in a good sense) religion.

2. praesultatorem, the head dancer. Evidently the Romans had in their native cults a ritual of dancing (like our savages), which was an important part of their religion. These rites were performed by a chorus (cf. the Salian priests), led by a chief dancer (praesul, praesultor, praesultator), whose movements were followed by the others (originally consules, from which the name might come to mean colleagues, and afterwards be used to designate the two sharers of the supreme power in place of the king). In Jupiter's divine riddle this leader is identified with the whipped slave.

2. de plebe: cf. I. 50. 3 n.
3. liber, etc. i.e. he was not un-

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