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dum ferret, ab regina retentum, sedatoque eam tumultu moveri vetuisse puerum donec sua sponte experrectus 3 esset. Mox cum somno et flammam abisse. Tum abducto in secretum viro Tanaquil 'Viden tu puerum hunc' inquit, 'quem tam humili cultu educamus? Scire licet hunc lumen quondam rebus nostris dubiis futurum praesidiumque regiae adflictae. Proinde materiam ingentis publice privatimque decoris omni indulgentia nostra nutriamus.'

Inde puerum liberum loco coeptum haberi erudirique artibus quibus ingenia ad magnae fortunae cultum excitantur. Evenit facile quod diis cordi esset: iuvenis evasit vere indolis regiae nec, cum quaereretur gener

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lus. retentum : because the queen recognized the supernatural character of the occurrence. - sedato: i.e. at her command. The position of eam gives the ablative absolute the force of a perfect active participle in agreement with the pronoun. — moveri, to be disturbed. experrectus esset: see Gr. 328.

3. in secretum, in private; the regular word for a private interview.

viden: the regular colloquial form of videsne; cf. do not and don't in English. inquit: this sudden change from indirect to direct discourse is common in all periods of the language, either with or without the verb of saying. — humili: in reference to his position as a slave. - scire licet, it is clear; cf. scilicet, which is often, though not regularly, used in the same sense. -lumen: in allusion to the phenomenon; cf. for the figure, lucem adferre rei publicae, Cic. Manil. 12. 33. hunc (regularly hoc, Gr. 195. d): here equivalent to hunc puerum. quondam, at

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This use becomes more and more frequent in later writers.

4. liberum, of a son. The word, denoting collectively the children of the house as opposed to the slaves, is frequently used of one person. coeptum: resuming the indirect discourse. artibus: sc. liberalibus, as a liberal education is still called. magnae fortunae, of a lofty position. cultum: opposed to cultu in 3, but with a different shade of meaning; there the process, and here the result, as in the much-abused culture. It means everything that belongs to life and its ideals. excitantur, are elevated. esset: character

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Tarquinio, quisquam Romanae iuventutis ulla arte conferri potuit, filiamque ei suam rex despondit.

Hic quacumque de causa tantus illi honos habitus 5 credere prohibet serva natum eum parvumque ipsum servisse. Eorum magis sententiae sum qui, Corniculo capto, Servi Tulli, qui princeps in illa urbe fuerat, gra vidam viro occiso uxorem, cum inter reliquas captivas cognita esset, ob unicam nobilitatem ab regina Romana prohibitam ferunt servitio partum Romae edidisse Prisci Tarquini domo. Inde tanto beneficio et inter mulieres 6 familiaritatem auctam, et puerum, ut in domo a parvo eductum, in caritate atque honore fuisse; fortunam matris, quod capta patria in hostium manus venerit, ut serva natus crederetur fecisse. A

Duodequadragesimo ferme anño ex quo regnare coe- 40 perat Tarquinius non apud regem modo, sed apud patres plebemque longe maximo honore Servius Tullius erat.

or respect. ingly, etc.

filiamque, and accord

5. hic: i.e. the honor of being married to the king's daughter. quacumque de causa: implying that Livy has a doubt about the preceding story accounting for the superiority of Servius to the other youth; cf. 3. 3.- honos habitus, the fact that, etc.; see Gr. 292. a. — credere: see Gr. 331. e. 2.- serva natum: according to one tradition, he had, like other heroes, a supernatural origin, being the son of the Lar familiaris of the house. Corniculo: an old Latin town near Tivoli; cf. 38. 4. — princeps: the tradition satisfies the necessary requirements by making him of royal blood. occiso. captivas: according to the laws of war, the males capable of bearing arms were killed, and the women and chil

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dren made slaves. - prohibitam : the noble commander's wife was reserved by womanly compassion from the usual fate.-domo: instead of domi; cf. bello, 34. 12.

6. beneficio: the rescue of the mother. fortunam, the fate; here, as often, of bad fortune. - patria, native city, as usual. In ancient times the city was the unit of political life; cf. cremata patria, 1. 8. serva as she was legally but for the rescue.

MURDER OF Tarquin.

40. duodequadragesimo: the importance of the date comes from its being that of the king's death, although that occurrence is not immediately mentioned. The effect is, 'In the year, etc., occurred the king's death in the following manner.'

2 Tum Anci filii duo, etsi antea semper pro indignissimo habuerant se patrio regno tutoris fraude pulsos, regnare Romae advenam non modo vicinae, sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis, tum impensius iis indignitas crescere, si ne 3 ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnum, sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post centesimum fere annum quod Romulus, deo prognatus deus ipse, tenuerit regnum donec in terris fuerit, id Servius serva natus possideat. Cum commune Romani nominis, tum praecipue id domus suae dedecus fore, si Anci regis virili stirpe salva non modo advenis sed servis etiam regnum Romae pateret.

Ferro igitur eam arcere contumeliam statuunt. Sed et iniuriae dolor in Tarquinium ipsum magis quam in Servium eos stimulabat, et, quia gravior ultor caedis, si superesset, rex futurus erat quam privatus, tum Servio occiso quemcumque alium generum delegisset, eundem regni heredem facturus videbatur, ob haec ipsi regi

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see Gr. 336. B. a, and N. Servius: with a sarcastic allusion to its derivation from servus. — advenis: like Tarquinius.

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4. sed: opposed to the inference that Servius would be the object of their attack.· - et. et: there were three reasons for the attack upon Tarquin, one introduced by the first et, and the other two grouped together by quia... tum, and introduced by the second et. iniuriae: their wrongs had been occasioned originally by the acts of Tarquin. superesset: standing for supersit in their thought. delegisset: standing for fut. perf. delegerit in their thought. dem, etc.: if he survived, they could not prevent him from choosing a son-in-law, and it was likely

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insidiae parantur. Ex pastoribus duo ferocissimi delecti 5 ad facinus, quibus consueti erant uterque agrestibus ferramentis, in vestibulo regiae quam potuere tumultuosissime specie rixae in se omnes apparitores regios convertunt. Inde, cum ambo regem appellarent clamorque eorum penitus in regiam pervenisset, vocati ad regem pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari et certatim alter 6 alteri obstrepere. Coerciti ab lictore et iussi invicem dicere tandem obloqui desistunt, unus rem ex composito orditur. Dum intentus in eum se rex totus averteret, 7 alter elatam securim in caput deiecit, relictoque in vulnere telo ambo se foras eiciunt.

Tarquinium moribundum cum qui circa erant exce- 41 pissent, illos fugientes lictores comprehendunt. Clamor inde concursusque populi mirantium quid rei esset.` Tanaquil inter tumultum claudi regiam iubet, arbitros eiecit; simul quae curando vulneri opus sunt, tamquam spes subesset, sedulo comparat, simul, si destituat spes, alia praesidia molitur.

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ously endeavor to, etc.
to interrupt each other. rem
(to state) his case.

7. totus: see Gr. 191..
teret: see Gr. 328. a. N.

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aver

41. excepissent, had caught, as he fell. illos fugientes, the flying assassins. mirantium: see Gr. 187. d. — quid rei esset, what the matter was; see Gr. 216. a. 3.arbitros: in its earlier sense of witnesses. simul... simul: correlatives not found in Cicero, but frequent in Livy. curando: cf. Gr. 299. a. - subesset, there were still; for tense, see Gr. 312.- destituat: present sequence, to avoid the implication of the contrary-tofact idea. The apodosis is merged in alia praesidia.

2

Servio propere accito cum paene exsanguem virum ostendisset, dextram tenens orat ne inultam mortem 3 soceri, ne socrum inimicis ludibrio esse sinat. 'Tuum est' inquit, 'Servi, si vir es, regnum, non eorum qui alienis manibus pessimum facinus fecere., Erige te deosque duces sequere, qui clarum hoc fore caput divino quondam circumfuso igni portenderunt. Nunc te illa caelestis excitet flamma, nunc expergiscere vere. Et

nos peregrini regnavimus. Qui sis, non unde natus sis, reputa. Si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea 4 consilia sequere.' Cum clamor impetusque multitudinis vix sustineri posset, ex superiore parte aedium per fenestras in Novam viam versas - habitabat enim rex ad 5 Iovis Statoris― populum Tanaquil adloquitur. Iubet bono animo esse: sopitum fuisse regem subito ictu, ferrum haud alte in corpus descendisse, iam ad se redisse; inspectum vulnus absterso cruore; omnia salubria esse.

2. virum, her husband. — inultam, etc.: the arrangement is chiastic. ludibrio: according to ancient ideas, an unavenged outrage makes the sufferer a subject of ridicule, a laughing-stock.

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3. vir, a man, really and truly such; cf. 'all are not men who wear the human form.' alienis: implying that the pastores were only the agents of the sons of Ancus.— facinus fecere: a favorite form of alliteration in Latin, like 'do a deed' in English. vere: as opposed to his former awaking from sleep. Now he is to awake from his unambitious sloth. et nos, etc.: i.e. we, too, were foreigners as well as you, and yet we gained the royal power. qui sis: i.e. your great genius, as opposed to your humble origin. tua: notice the emphasis, opposed to mea. consilia, counsels; i.e. the knowl

edge what to do. - torpent, are paralyzed.

4. clamor impetusque, etc., the clamorous, rushing crowd; i.e. the throng trying to break into the palace. ex superiore, etc.: the Roman houses were built with hardly any windows in the lower story on the street, as is seen in the ruins of Pompeii, but with openings closed by shutters in the upper stories. — Novam viam : this street descended from the ancient Porta Mugionis, on the Palatine, along the Forum. The temple of Jupiter Stator was on it. The ruins of these places are still traceable on the newly excavated Palatine Hill.-habitabat, etc., for the king's house was, etc.

5. sopitum, rendered unconscious. fuisse: after the word of saying implied in iubet.-confidere: sc. se, omitted on account of the rapidity of the narrative.

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