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subsequent to the date of the receipt, unless the receipt expressly enumerates other charges for which a lien is claimed. In such case there shall be a lien for the charges enumerated so far as they are within the terms of section twenty-seven, although the amount of the charges so enumerated is not stated in the receipt.
SEC. 31. WAREHOUSEMAN NEED NOT DELIVER UNTIL LIEN IS SATISFIED.-A warehouseman having a lien valid against the person demanding the goods may refuse to deliver the goods to him until the lien is satisfied.
SEC. 32. WAREHOUSEMAN'S LIEN DOES NOT PRECLUDE OTHER REMEDIES.-Whether a warehouseman has or has not a lien upon the goods, he is entitled to all remedies allowed by law to a creditor against his debtor for the collection from the depositor of all charges and advances which the depositor has expressly or impliedly contracted with the warehouseman to pay.
SEC. 33. SATISFACTION OF LIEN BY SALE.-A warehouseman's lien for a claim which has become due may be satisfied as follows:
The warehouseman shall give a written notice to the person on whose account the goods are held, and to any other person known by the warehouseman to claim an interest in the goods. Such notice shall be given by delivery in person or by registered letter addressed to the last known place of business or abode of the person to be notified. The notice shall contain
(a) An itemized statement of the warehouseman's claim, showing the sum due at the time of the notice and the date or dates when it became due;
(b) A brief description of the goods against which the lien exists;
(c) A demand that the amount of the claim as stated in the notice, and of such further claim as shall accrue, shall be paid on or before a day mentioned, not less than ten days from the delivery of the notice if it is personally delivered, or from the time when the notice should reach its destination, according to the due course of post, if the notice is sent by mail; and
(d) A statement that unless the claim is paid within the time specified the goods will be advertised for sale and sold by auction at a specified time and place.
In accordance with the terms of a notice so given, a sale of the goods by auction may be had to satisfy any valid claim of the warehouseman for which he has a lien on the goods. The sale shall be had in the place where the lien was acquired, or, if such place is manifestly unsuitable for the purpose, at the nearest suitable place. After the time for the payment of the claim specified in the notice to the depositor has elapsed an advertisement of the sale, describing the goods to be sold and stating the name of the owner or person on whose account the goods are held and the time and place of the sale, shall be published once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the place where such sale is to be held. The sale shall not be
held less than fifteen days from the time of the first publication. If there is no newspaper published in such place, the advertisement shall be posted at least ten days before such sale in not less than six conspicuous places therein. From the proceeds of such sale the warehouseman shall satisfy his lien, including the reasonable charges of notice, advertisement, and sale. The balance, if any, of such proceeds shall be held by the warehouseman, and delivered on demand to the person to whom he would have been bound to deliver or justified in delivering the goods." At any time before the goods are so sold any person claiming a right of property or possession therein may pay the warehouseman the amount necessary to satisfy his lien and to pay the reasonable expenses and liabilities incurred in serving notices and advertising and preparing for the sale up to the time of such payment. The warehouseman shall deliver the goods to the person making such payment if he is a person entitled, under the provisions of this Act to the possession of the goods on payment of charges thereon. Otherwise the warehouseman shall retain possession of the goods according to the terms of the original contract of deposit.
SEC. 34. PERISHABLE AND HAZARDOUS GOODS.-If goods are of a perishable nature, or by keeping will deteriorate greatly in value, or by their odor, leakage, inflammability, or explosive nature, will be liable to injure other property, the warehouseman may give such notice to the owner, or to the person in whose name the goods are stored, as is reasonable and possible under the circumstances, to satisfy the lien upon such goods, and to remove them from the warehouse, and in the event of the failure of such person to satisfy the lien and to remove the goods within the time so specified, the warehouseman may sell the goods at public or private sale without advertising. If the warehouseman after a reasonable effort is unable to sell such goods, he may dispose of them in any lawful manner, and shall incur no liability by reason thereof.
The proceeds of any sale made under the terms of this section shall be disposed of in the same way as the proceeds of sales made under the terms of the preceding
SEC. 35. OTHER METHODS OF ENFORCING LIENS.-The remedy for enforcing a lien herein provided does not preclude any other remedies allowed by law for the enforcement of a lien against personal property nor bar the right to recover so much of the warehouseman's claim as shall not be paid by the proceeds of the sale of the property.
SEC. 36. EFFECT OF SALE.-After goods have been lawfully sold to satisfy a warehouseman's lien, or have been lawfully sold or disposed of because of their perishable or hazardous nature, the warehouseman shall not thereafter be liable for failure to deliver the goods to the depositor, or owner of the goods, or to a holder of the receipt given for the goods when they were deposited, even if such receipt be negotiable.
NEGOTIATION AND TRANSFER OF RECEIPTS.
SEC. 37.-NEGOTIATION OF NEGOTIABLE RECEIPTS BY DELIVERY.-A negotiable receipt may be negotiated by delivery
(a) Where, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the bearer; or
(b) Where, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of a specified person, and such person or a subsequent indorsee of the receipt has indorsed it in blank or to bearer.
Where, by the terms of a negotiable receipt, the goods are deliverable to bearer or where a negotiable receipt has been indorsed in blank or to bearer, any holder may indorse the same to himself or to any other specified person, and in such case the receipt shall thereafter be negotiated only by the indorsement of such indorsee.
SEC. 38. NEGOTIATION OF NEGOTIABLE RECEIPTS BY INDORSEMENT.-A negotiable receipt may be negotiated by the indorsement of the person to whose order the goods are, by the terms of the receipt, deliverable. Such indorsement may be in blank, to bearer or to a specified person. If indorsed to a specified person, it may be again negotiated by the indorsement of such person in blank, to bearer or to another specified person. Subsequent negotiation may be made in like manner.
SEC. 39. TRANSFER OF RECEIPTS.-A receipt which is not in such form that it can be negotiated by delivery may be transferred by the holder by delivery to a purchaser or donee.
A nonnegotiable receipt can not be negotiated, and the indorsement of such a receipt gives the transferee no additional right.
SEC. 40. WHO MAY NEGOTIATE A RECEIPT.-A negotiable receipt may be negotiated
(a) By the owner thereof; or
(b) By any person to whom the possession or custody of the receipt has been intrusted by the owner, if, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of the person to whom the possession or custody of the receipt has been intrusted, or if at the time of such intrusting the receipt is in such form that it may be negotiated by delivery.
SEC. 41. RIGHTS OF PERSON TO WHOM A RECEIPT HAS BEEN NEGOTIATED.-A person to whom a negotiable receipt has been duly negotiated acquires thereby
(a) Such title to the goods as the person negotiating the receipt to him had or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value, and also such title to the goods as the depositor or person to whose order the goods were to be delivered by the terms of the receipt had or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value; and
(b) The direct obligation of the warehouseman to hold possession of the goods for him according to the terms of the receipt as fully as if the warehouseman had contracted directly with him.
SEC. 42. RIGHTS OF PERSON TO WHOM A RECEIPT HAS BEEN TRANSFERRED.-A person to whom a receipt has been transferred but not negotiated acquires thereby, as against the transferrer, the title to the goods, subject to the terms of any agreement with the transferrer.
If the receipt is nonnegotiable, such person also acquires the right to notify the warehouseman of the transfer to him of such receipt, and thereby to acquire the direct obligation of the warehouseman to hold possession of the goods for him according to the terms of the receipt.
Prior to the notification of the warehouseman by the transferrer or transferee of a nonnegotiable receipt, the title of the transferrer to the goods and the right to acquire the obligation of the warehouseman may be defeated by the levy of an attachment or execution upon the goods by a creditor of the transferrer, or by a notification to the warehouseman by the transferrer or a subsequent purchaser from the transferrer of a subsequent sale of the goods by the transferrer.
SEC. 43. TRANSFER OF NEGOTIABLE RECEIPT WITHOUT INDORSEMENT. Where a negotiable receipt is transferred for value by delivery, and the indorsement of the transferrer is essential for negotiation, the transferee acquires a right against the transferrer to compel him to indorse the receipt, unless a contrary intention appears. The negotiation shall take effect as of the time when the indorsement is actually made.
SEC. 44. WARRANTIES ON SALE OF RECEIPT.-A person who for value negotiates or transfers a receipt by indorsement or delivery, including one who assigns for value a claim secured by a receipt, unless a contrary intention appears, warrants
(a) That the receipt is genuine;
(b) That he has a legal right to negotiate or transfer it;
(c) That he has knowledge of no fact which would impair the validity or worth of the receipt; and
(d) That he has a right to transfer the title to the goods, and that the goods are merchantable or fit for a particular purpose whenever such warranties would have been implied, if the contract of the parties had been to transfer without a receipt the goods represented thereby.
SEC. 45. INDORSER NOT A GUARANTOR.-The indorsement of a receipt shall not make the indorser liable for any failure on the part of the warehouseman or previous indorsers of the receipt to fulfill their respective obligations.
SEC. 46. NO WARRANTY IMPLIED FROM ACCEPTING PAYMENT OF A DEBT.-A mortgagee, pledgee, or holder for security of a receipt who in good faith demands or receives
payment of the debt for which such receipt is security, whether from a party to a draft drawn for such debt or from any other person, shall not by so doing be deemed to represent or to warrant the genuineness of such receipt of the quantity or quality of the goods therein described. SEC. 47. WHEN NEGOTIATION NOT IMPAIRED BY FRAUD, MISTAKE, OR DURESS.-The validity of the negotiation of a receipt is not impaired by the fact that such negotiation was a breach of duty on the part of the person making the negotiation, or by the fact that the owner of the receipt was induced by fraud, mistake, or duress to intrust the possession or custody of the receipt to such person, if the person to whom the receipt was negotiated, or a person to whom the receipt was subsequently negotiated, paid value therefor, without notice of the breach of duty, or fraud, mistake, or duress.
SEC. 48. SUBSEQUENT NEGOTIATION.-Where a person having sold, mortgaged, or pledged goods which are in a warehouse and for which a negotiable receipt has been issued, or having sold, mortgaged, or pledged the negotiable receipt representing such goods, continues in possession of the negotiable receipt, the subsequent negotiation thereof by that person under any sale, or other disposition thereof to any person receiving the same in good faith, for value and without notice of the previous sale, mortgage, or pledge, shall have the same effect as if the first purchaser of the goods or receipt had expressly authorized the subsequent negotiation.
SEC. 49. NEGOTIATION DEFEATS VENDOR'S LIEN.— Where a negotiable receipt has been issued for goods no seller's lien or right of stoppage in transitu shall defeat the rights of any purchaser for value in good faith to whom such receipt has been negotiated, whether such negotiation be prior or subsequent to the notification to the warehouseman who issued such receipt of the seller's claim to a lien or right of stoppage in transitu. Nor shall the warehouseman be obliged to deliver or justified in delivering the goods to an unpaid seller unless the receipt is first surrendered for cancellation.
SEC. 50. ISSUE OF RECEIPT FOR GOODS NOT RECEIVED.A warehouseman, or any officer, agent, or servant of a warehouseman, who issues or aids in issuing a receipt knowing that the goods for which such receipt is issued have not been actually received by such warehouseman, or are not under his actual control at the time of issuing such receipt, shall be guilty of a crime, and upon conviction shall be punished for each offense by imprisonment not exceeding five years or by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or by both.