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Sec. 1536. SUMMONS.-In all common-law civil suits and actions in the District of Columbia the process for compelling the defendant's appearance shall be a summons in the following form:


In the supreme court of the District of Columbia.

A B, plaintiff,


At law. Number....

CD, defendant.]

The President of the United States to the defendant,


You are hereby summoned to appear in this court on or before the twentieth day, exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays, after the day of service of this writ upon you, to answer the plaintiff's suit and show why he should not have judgment against you for the cause of action stated in his declaration; and in case of your failure so to appear and answer, judgment will be given against you by default. Witness the honorable ......, chief justice of said court, the anno Domini

day of ......"

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ford G. Co. v.

Sec. 1537. SERVICE ON FOREIGN CORPORATIONS.-In Cont. J. F. Co. v. Karr, 31 D. C. actions against foreign corporations doing business in the App., 461; Ricketts v. Sun P. & P. District all process may be served on the agent of such co., 27 D. C. corporation or person conducting its business, or, in case APP. Harhe is absent and can not be found, by leaving a copy at rison G. Co., 23 D. the principal place of business in the District, or, if there R. 8. D. C., 790; be no such place of business, by leaving the same at the 2 Mac Arthur, 238; place of business or residence of such agent in said Dis- Co. v. Coal & trict, and such service shall be effectual to bring the cor- L.R., 242; Granporation before the court.

C. App., 20; see


ite Co. v. Granite Co., 23 D. C. App.,

v. Kan. L. Rep., Howard v. R. R.

App., 300.

When a foreign corporation shall transact business in the 1-20; N. Y. Ct. District without having any place of business or resident Journal Pub, Co. agent therein, service upon any officer or agent or employee 36 L. R., 150 of such corporation in the District shall be effectual as to Co., 11 D. C. suits growing out of contracts entered into or to be per- L. R., 699; 1 formed, in whole or in part, in the District of Columbia or D. C. App., 94; 31 growing out of any tort heretofore or hereafter committed in 33 D. C. App., the said District.-Act of February 1, 1907 (34 Stat., 159. Part I, p. 874).

D. C. 459;


[When a foreign corporation shall transact business in the District without having any place of business or resident agent therein, service upon any officer or agent of such corporation in the District shall be effectual as to suits growing out of contracts entered into or to be performed, in whole or in part, in the District of Columbia or growing out of any tort heretofore or hereafter committed in the said District.]


Hayes v. Burns, D25. C. App., 242.

Sec. 1538.



Sec. 1538. AGAINST WHOM ISSUED.-A quo warranto may be issued from the supreme court of the District in the name of the United States

First. Against a person who usurps, intrudes into, or unlawfully holds or exercises within the District a franchise or public office, civil or military, or an office in any domestic corporation.

Second. Against any one or more persons who act as a corporation within the District without being duly authorized, or exercise within the District any corporate rights, privileges, or franchises not granted them by the laws in force in said District.

And said proceedings shall be deemed a civil action. Sec. 1539. WHO MAY INSTITUTE. The AttorneyGeneral or the district attorney may institute such proceeding on his own motion, or on the relation of a third person. But such writ shall not be issued on the relation of a third person except by leave of the court, to be applied for by the relator, by a petition duly verified, setting forth the grounds of the application, or until the relator shall file a bond with sufficient surety, to be approved by the clerk of the court, in such penalty as the court may prescribe, conditioned for the payment by him of all costs incurred in the prosecution of the writ in case the same shall not be recovered from and paid by the defendant.

Sec. 1540. IF ATTORNEY-GENERAL AND DISTRICT ATTORNEY REFUSE.-If the Attorney-General and district attorney shall refuse to institute such proceeding on the request of a person interested, such person may apply to the court by verified petition for leave to have said writ issued; and if in the opinion of the court the reasons set forth in said petition are sufficient in law, the said writ shall be allowed to be issued by any attorney, in the name of the United States, on the relation of said interested person, on his compliance with the condition prescribed in the last section as to security for costs.

Sec. 1541. RELATOR CLAIMING OFFICE.-When such proceeding is against a person for usurping an office, on the relation of a person claiming the same office, the relator shall set forth in his petition the facts upon which he claims to be entitled to the office.

Sec. 1542. NOTICE TO DEFENDANT.-On the issuing of the writ the [clerk] court may fix a time within which the defendant may appear and answer the same. If the

defendant can not be found in the District, the court may direct notice to be given to him by publication as in other cases of proceedings against nonresident defendants, and upon proof of publication, if the defendant shall not appear, judgment may be rendered as if he had been personally served.

Sec. 1543. If the defendant shall not appear as required by the writ, after being personally served, the court may proceed to hear proof in support of the writ, and render judgment accordingly.

Sec. 1544. PLEADING.-The defendant may demur or plead specially or plead "Not guilty" as the general issue, and the United States may reply as in other actions of a civil character; and any issue of fact shall be tried by a jury if either party shall require it, otherwise it shall be determined by the court.

Sec. 1545. VERDICT.-Where the defendant is found by the jury to have usurped or intruded into or unlawfully held or exercised an office or franchise, the verdict shall be that he is guilty of the act or acts in question, and judgment shall be rendered that he be ousted and excluded therefrom and that the relator recover his costs.

Sec. 1546. USURPING CORPORATE FRANCHISE.-Where the proceeding is against persons acting as a corporation without being legally incorporated, the judgment against the defendants shall be that they be perpetually restrained and enjoined from the commission or continuance of the acts complained of.

Sec. 1547. ELECTION OF DIRECTORS, AND SO FORTH.Where the proceeding is against a director or trustee of a corporation and the court finds that at his election either illegal votes were received or legal votes rejected, or both, sufficient to change the result if such error be corrected, judgment may be rendered that the defendant be ousted, and that the relator, if entitled to be declared elected, be be admitted to the office, and a mandamus may be issued to the proper parties, being officers or members of said corporation, to admit him to said office. The said judgment may require the defendant to deliver to the relator all books, papers, and other things in his custody or control pertaining to the said office, and obedience to said. judgment may be enforced by attachment.

Sec. 1548. ACTION AGAINST INTRUDER FOR DAMAGES.At any time within a year after such judgment the said relator may bring an action against the party ousted and recover the damages sustained by him by reason of such usurpation of the office to which he was entitled.

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Sec. 13; R. S. D. C., 814.

9 D.C.App.,109;

Sec. 1549. WILL LIE FOR WHAT.-In any action of re

13 D. C. App., 78;

27 D. C. App., 470; plevin brought to recover any personal property to which 19 D. C. App., 555. the plaintiff is entitled, which may have been wrongfully

19 C. 529;

taken by or may be in the possession of and wrongfully detained by the defendant, it shall not be necessary to demand possession of said property before bringing the action therefor; but in such cases the costs of the action shall be awarded as the court may order.

Sec. 1550. DECLARATION. The declaration in replevin shall be in the following or equivalent form:

The plaintiff sues the defendant for (wrongly taking and detaining) (unjustly detaining) his, said plaintiff's, goods and chattels, to wit: (describe them) of the value of dollars. And the plaintiff claims that the same be taken from the defendant and delivered to him; or, if they are eloigned, that he may have judgment of their said value and all mesne profits and damages, which he estimates at dollars, besides costs.

Sec. 13; R. S. D. C., 815.

Sec. 13: R. S. D. C., 816.

R. S. D. C., 817.



Sec. 1551. AFFIDAVIT.-At the time of filing the declaration in replevin, the plaintiff, his agent, or attorney shall file an affidavit stating

First. That, according to affiant's information and belief, the plaintiff is entitled to recover possession of chattels proposed to be replevied, being the same described in the declaration.

Second. That the defendant has seized and detained or detains the same.

Third. That said chattels were not subject to such seizure or detention and were not taken upon any writ of replevin between the parties.

Sec. 1552. UNDERTAKING. The plaintiff shall at the the same time enter into an undertaking by himself or his agent with surety, approved by the clerk, to abide by and perform the judgment of the court in the premises.-Act of June 30, 1902 (32 Stat., Part I, p. 544).


[Sec. 1552. UNDERTAKING. The plaintiff shall at the same time enter into an undertaking with surety, approved by the clerk, to abide by and perform the judgment of the court in the premises.]

Sec. 1553. IF GOODS NOT SEIZED.- -If the officer's return of the writ of replevin be that he has served the defendant with copies of the declaration, notice to plead, and summons, but that he could not get possession of the

goods and chattels sued for, the plaintiff may prosecute the action for the value of the same and damages for detention, or he may renew the writ in order to get possession of the goods and chattels themselves.

Sec. 1554. PUBLICATION AGAINST DEFENDANT.-If the R. S. D. C., 818. officer's return be that he has taken possession of the goods and chattels sued for, but that the defendant is not to be found, the court, subject to the provisions of section one hundred and eight hereof as to mailing notice, may order that the defendant appear to the action by some fixed day; and of this order the plaintiff shall cause notice to be given by publication in some newspaper of the District at least three times, the first of which shall be at least twenty days before the day fixed for the defendant's appearance.

Sec. 1555. DEFAULT.-If the defendant fails to appear, the court may proceed as in case of default after personal service.

Sec. 1556. PLEADING.-If the defendant appear he R. S. D. C., 820. may plead not guilty, in which case all special matters of defense may be given in evidence, or he may plead specially.

Md. act, 1785,

Sec. 1557. MOTION FOR RETURN.-On the taking pos- ch. 80, sec 14. session of the goods and chattels by the marshal or coroner, by virtue of the writ of replevin, the defendant may, on one day's notice to the plaintiff or his attorney, move for a return of the property to his possession; and the court may thereupon inquire into the circumstances and manner of the defendant's obtaining possession of such property, and if it shall seem just may order the property to be returned to the possession of the defendant, to abide the final judgment in the action, and may, in its discretion, require the defendant to enter into an undertaking, with surety or sureties, similar to that required of the plaintiff upon the commencement of the action, and in such case a judgment for the plaintiff shall be rendered against the surety or sureties, as well as against the defendant. If it shall appear that the possession of the property was forcibly or fraudulently obtained by the defendant, or that the possession, being first in the plaintiff, was procured or retained by the defendant without authority from the plaintiff, the court may refuse to order the return. The defendant may also, on similar notice, object to the sufficiency of the security in the undertaking, and the court may require additional security, in default of which the property shall be returned to the defendant, but the action may proceed as if the property had not been taken.

R. S. D. C., 819.

Sec. 1558. OFFICER'S DUTY.-If the defendant shall Sec. 17. notify the officer taking possession of the property, in writing, of his intention to make either of the motions aforesaid, it shall be the duty of the officer to retain possession of the property until said motion shall be disposed of, provided that the same shall be filed and notice given,

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