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but a remark or two on what appears to be a singular by S. A. Fraser and Col. Rhodes, and was taken method of criticism may not be out of place. Our in 1866. readers will ask what is a “Literary" poet? Are The Religious literature of the month is as varied not all poets literary, who are not illiterate? The as usual. In the controversial department, the most critic says, No. Literary poets are those who select prominent as well as the most numerous are works their subjects from the past, failing to appreciate the written with a view of reconciling science with active life of their time ; they also err in choosing revealed truth. Three of these may be mentioned their own style and diction, instead of merely em- as especially note-worthy :-“Moses and Modern ploying the methods of their predecessors and the Science,” by J. Elliott ; " Physical Facts, and the language of the prosaic world in which they move. Scriptural Record,” by W. B. Galloway ; and “ The They owe their origin immediately to John Keats, Agreement of Science and Revelation,” by the Rev. A name rather out of place in the mouth of a Dr. Wythe. The Athanasian Creed which has been Quarterly reviewer. Keats is said “to have died denounced by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the from the hostility of the critics,” but his writings Bishop of Peterborough, still finds defenders. The have “done more to determine the subsequent Rev. Mr. Brewer in his reply to Dean Stanley, even course of English poetry than those of any other defends the damnatory clauses :-"If error," he poet.". The self-complacency with which Keats' says, “shall not perish everlastingly, then will error death is referred to is perfectly wonderful. As every: be everlastingly saved ; and there is no essential difbody now knows, however, the Quarterly had ference between truth and error but both are originot the slightest share in the poet's early decease, for nally pleasing in God's sight”-a species of logic, he never took its attack to heart. The testimony to which partly evades and partly begs the question at the influence its supposed victim has since exerted issue. " The History of the Literature of the Israe: by his works is a striking proof of the impotence of its lites, according to the Old Testament,” by C. and criticism, either for good or evil. Spenser, it appears, A. Rothschild, a valuable work from the Jewish was, to a very large extent, literary poet ; but he point of view, has recently been published in an was saved by connecting his literary theme with the abridged form. “Illustrations of the Old Testatime in a dedication to Elizabeth. If Milton had ment,” by the Rev. G. Rawlinson ; and “Moral written “Paradise Lost" only, he would have fallen Difficulties of Old Testament History,” by Dr Hesunder the ban ; but then in his minor poems, there sey, are useful little volumes, issued under the ausare "the most enchanting descriptions of English pices of the Christian Evidence Society. The Rev. scenery.". Dryden and Pope were of course non- Dr. Macmillan is a popular writer, and we have no literary, because they dealt in party politics and per- doubt his latest work just announced." The Garsonal satire. We suppose that Shakspeare, had he den and the City, with other contrasts and parallels rested his fame on Hamlet, Othello, As You Like It, of Scripture,” will command a wide circle of readers. and The Tempest, would also have been one of the The publication of a revised edition of Canon Westliteraries. Mr. Swinburne, for writing Atalanta in cott's "Introduction to the Study of the Four GosCalydon, has incurred the imputation and so, we pels,” and the appearance of an American edition of presume, would Shakspeare if he had published Naville's “Problem of Evil,” an able work on an "Venus and Adonis,” without a dedication to the inexplicable subject may be mentioned. Christ in Earl of Southampton. This style of criticism may Modern Life," a series of sermons by the Rev. Stopmean a great deal, but it is far out of the range of ford A. Brooke, one of Her Majesty's Chaplains in contemporary understanding and ought, therefore, to ordinary, has also achieved sufficient attention to be stigmatized as "literary" for similar reasons. warant republication. Dr Cuyler, of New York,
Our attention has been called to a literary organ of has just published a work entitled, “Thought Hives," Bostonian opinion, from which we find that we hardwhich, from the reputation of the author, should be ly did justice to Mr. Longfellow's "Divine Tragedy.” worth reading: Two books from the High Church It seems this drama is the first part of a “ trilogy may be noted :-“The Two Estates, that of the of which the two other parts are “The Golden Wedded in the Lord, and that of the Single for the legend" and the “ New England Tragedies. A Kingdom of Heaven's Sake," by Dr. Morgan Dix, drama in three parts, of which the first part is the Rector of Trinity, New York. The other a laboured history of Christ, and the last and crowning part an vindication of “ Praying for the Dead," by the Rev. outburst of Puritan fanaticism in Massachusetts ! | Dr. Lee. Dr. Dollinger's “Fables concerning the This, we are told, "is Mr. Longfellow's contribution Popes of the Middle Ages,” a very valuable and into the Christology which is so prominent a study teresting contribution to Church History, has just throughout the religious world of to-day.” Surely been reprinted at a reasonable price in New York. it is the strangest contribution ever made to any In Mental Philosophy, we may mention two **ology" of our day.
works : Dr. Calderwood's revised edition of “ The We omitted to mention last month a case of un- | Philosophy of the Infinite,'' by Sir W. Hamilton and blushing piracy on the part of an American news- Dr. Mansel, and the issue in separate form of the paper. In Frank Leslie's Illustrated appeared an Preface, Supplementary Dissertations and concluengraving entitled "Sportsmen in Camp among clusion of Sir W. Hamilton's work, collected by the the Adirondacks,” from a sketch by T. S. Jameson. late Dean Mansel. In Politics and Sociology we Will our readers believe that this picture is merely a have the promised volume of “ Essays and Lectures tracing of one of Messrs. Notman's photographs, on Politics and Social Subjects,” by Professor and transferred to a wood-block, without even the merit Mrs. Fawcett. We take advantage of the appear; of limning? We have examined both the photo ance of an American edition of Arthur Ilelps' graph and the engraving, and can testify to the fact of “Thoughts on Government,” to commend it again the appropriation without the slightest doubt. The to the notice of our readers ; like all the author's original forms one of a series—"Moose Hunting,” works, it is interesting as well as instructive. ,, Mr. produced by Wm. Notman from designs and details / Macdonell's “Survey of Political Economy,” the
latest treatise on the subject, we observe is now ready. ing enough to reward perusal, and so is Mr. Hep.
The works of John Hookham Frere may be worth Dixon's “Switzers," although the amount of noticed in this place, although his most substantial fresh information contained in them is not large. claim to remembrance rests upon his admirable Taine's “Notes on England,” translated by Mr. W. translation of Aristophanes. But he was an M.P. F. Rae, a well known contributor to the high-class and a diplomatist, the intimate friend of Canning, periodical literature of England, ought to command and one of the chief contributors to the parody and general attention in their revised and collected form. satire of the Anti Fucobin.
“New Homes for the Old Country,” is a book on In Physical Science, the chief work to be noted is Australia and New Zealand by Geo. S. BadenProf. Huxley's "Manual of the Anatomy of the Powell, a son of the celebrated Savillian Professor. Vertebrated Animals,” which will at once take its We only mention it, to give expression to our regret place as the best text book on the subject. “ The that no Canadian Colonist has yet been found to do Forms of Water in Clouds, Rain, Rivers, Ice and a similar service on behalf of this Dominion. Glaciers,” by Prof. Tyndall, is the first of the Inter- In Biography and History we have the usual national Scientific Series to be published simultane- abundance. The Duc D’Aumale has made his apously in London, Paris, Leipzic, and New York. A pearance in the literary field with “ Lives of the list of contributors has been announced; amongst the Princes of the House of Condé, Carl Elze's Life of rest Profs. Huxley, Bain, Quetelet, Ramsay, Dr. Byron” has been reprinted, on this side, and although Carpenter, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. Herbert ) it contains no new information and errs in several Spencer. * Corals and Coral Islands,” an illustrat- important particulars, it will repay perusal as a ed work by Prof. Dana will shortly appear. “A foreign estimate of the poet. Wm. Chambers Manual of Anthropology," by Charles Bray, author Memoir of his brother Robert is a healthy book, in of the “ Philosophy of Necessity,” is an eclectic every sense-the record of struggling aspirations and work, instructive in character and abounding in untiring perseverance with their ultinate reward. humour and feeling. Sir Jno. Lubbock's valuable Thomas Cooper, formerly known as the Chartist, work, “ Pre-historic Times, as illustrated by Ancient and author of “The Purgatory of Suicides," has Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern issued an autobiography. The second series of Miss Savages,” and Tylor's “Primitive Culture," a Mitford's delightful letters will appear shortly. The learned and candidly written view of human develop- fourth volume of Ernest Curtius' History of Greece, ment, based upon the theory of Evolution, have both extending to the death of Epaminondas, has appeared been reprinted in the United States. In Archaeology, in England. Mr. Freeman's "History of the Nor * Rude Stone Monuments of all Ages,” by Ferguson, man Conquest,” to which we have already referred, the author of the History of Architecture, and" An- is now complete. Mr. Nassau Molesworth's “ Hiscient America, in notes on American Archaeology," tory of England since 1830,” is a useful record of by Mr. Baldwin, M. A., are note worthy. We may the events of the last forty years. Mr. Longman's add that Mr. Timb's useful Year Book of Facts in “Edward III.” is not to be the only Historical Science and Art, with a portrait of Sir W. Thomson, work by a publisher. Mr. Adam Black has taken President of the British Association, has just made the field with a “ Political History of the Times." its appearance. In Art, may be mentioned the issue "Our Empire in Asia; how we came by it, a Book of the third part of Gustave Doré's “ London, a of Confessions,” by W. M. Torrens, M. P., is a very Pilgrimage.” “The History of the Gothic Revival,” severe attack upon the annexation policy in India, by Chas. L. Eastlake, is an attempt to show how and urges that some independent court of arbitration far the taste for mediæval architecture was retained in should be established to decide equitably between England during the last two centuries and has been the Crown and the native princes. Another war re-developed in the present. “The British School history has appeared “In France with the Germans," of Sculpture” is a handsome and valuable illustrated by Col. Otto Corvin. We may note the re-issue of work published by Messrs. Virtue. Hamerton's Taine's “ English Literature” (Vols. I. and II.) by “Etcher's Hand Book" may also be commended as Holt & Williams, New York, and the announce useful, both as a practical and a critical guide. ment, in England, of a second series of Earl Stan. The Rev. Mr. Haweis' work, “Music and Morals," hope’s “Historical Miscellanies.” which is most delightful in style and matter, has İn Belles Lettres, so far as poetry is concerned, been reprinted by the Harpers; we shall probably there is nothing worthy of special mention. Mr. notice it at greater length hereafter.
Tennyson was said to be engaged on a poem on the “At Home with the Patagonians” is a very curi- illness of the Prince of Wales; and Mr. Browning ous record of Travel, by Mr. Musters, a retired Com- is also reported to be writing a popular poem on a mander of the Royal Navy. The author gives a popular subject. The most popular and commendcurious account of his “year's wandering over un. able novels of the month, we shall merely name:trodden ground.” It seems that he actually proposed Jeaffreson's “A Woman in spite of Herself"; to marry and settle there, but the match was broken Bruna's Revenge, by the author of “Caste"; Lord off, on a demand on the part of his betrothed's friends Kilgobbin, a Tale of Ireland in our own Time, by that his revolver should be made over to them. Charles Lever ; Cast Away, by Edmund Yales; “South Sea Bubbles,” by the Earl and the Doctor, Cecil's Tryst, by the author of Lost Sir Massingberd; is an exceedingly racy narrative of a yacht-cruise Poppies in the Corn, by the author of The Harvest of amongst the Islands of the Southern Pacific. The a Quiet Eye; and Miss Braddon's Lovels of Arden, Earl is understood to be the young Earl of Pembroke. just reprinted in New York. Dr. Edward Prime's “Round the World,” is interest.
OTHING more truly indicates the | by a steady, and, since the Union, a rapid
condition of a nation than the rise expansion. or fall of its commerce with other countries. The “blue books ” issued by Parliament As its commercial tides ebb and flow, so each year have very few students. They may the nation be said to prosper or de are, it must be confessed, not very attractive cline-advance or retrograde. A contract- to the general reader; but the facts which ing annual commerce indicates “something they contain are highly important, and derotten in the state of Denmark”; an ex- serve more consideration than they generally panding commerce tells not only of im- receive. Let us see if they cannot tell us portant resources, of national industry and something interesting about the extent and enterprise, but of growing wealth, power character of our commerce, the different and influence.
nations with which we deal, and the exLooked at from this point of view, the changes which annually pass between us. condition of Canada, especially since the The Union of the Provinces, on the ist of Confederation of the Provinces, may justly July, 1867, naturally divides our commerbe described as satisfactory and hopeful. cial, as it does our political, history. Prior Our progress may not have been so rapid to that time, our public records contain only as that of particular States of the neighbour- the Trade Returns of Ontario and Quebec ; ing Republic, or of one or two of the Aus- since then, we have those of Nova Scotia tralian Colonies, whilst under the first and New Brunswick included. Taking these stimulus of the gold excitement. But it has divisions in their order, we find that the been less fitful than the latter, and the volume annual commerce of the late Province of of our annual commerce has been marked Canada rose from a mere trifle in 1841,
Fatered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada in the year 1972, by Alam, Stevensun & Co., in the Office of the
Minister of Agriculture,
when Upper and Lower Canada were first political fruits of that measure, more time united, to nearly $100,000,000 before that may be necessary to enable an intelligent union terminated in 1867. To prove this, judgment to be formed; but the experience and show the steadiness which marked its we have had, comparatively short as it has growth, we need not go farther back than been, goes far to establish its success from the year 1850, from which date up to Con- a commercial point of view. This will apfederation, the total value of our annual pear by an examination of the imports and transactions (imports and exports added) exports of the Dominion since the union, was as follows:
beginning with the year ending the 30th YEAR. TOTAL TRADE., YEAR. Total Trade. June, 1868, and ending with that of the zoth 1850. -$29, 703,497 1859... 58,299,242 June, 1871:1851. 34,805,461 1860.. 68,955,093 IMPORTS.
TOTAL 1852. 35,594, 100 1861..
76, 119,843 $71,985, 306... ...$57,567,888. .... $129,553,194 1853. 55,782,739 1862..
67,402,170. 60,474,781.. 127,876,951 1854.
63,548,515 1863.. 81,458,335 74,814, 339. 73,573,490..... 148,387,829 1855. 64,274,630 1864 (72 year) 34,586,054 86,661,145..
74, 173,613.. ... 160,834,758 1856. 75,631,404 1864-5..
66,437,222 1865-6.. .... 96,479,738 $300,862,960 $265,789,772 $566,652,732 i 1858... 52,550,461) 1866–7. ....... 94,791,860
The returns of the first two years after From these statistics, it will be observed Confederation, it will be noticed, were that, with the exception of a few years suc- nearly equal, but since then the Dominion ceeding the great commercial crisis of 1857, has bounded quickly forward in the race of which swept over this continent like a flood, commercial progress. During 1869–70 the the growth of the trade of the late Province value of our trade increased $20,510,878 of Canada was generally steady, and at over the previous year, during 1870-1 there times, even rapid. Between 1850 and 1856, was a further expansion of $12,446,929, and our annual transactions rose from the value the current year promises to equal, if it does of $29,703,497 to the handsome sum of not surpass, them both. Our total transac$75,632,404-an increase of over 250 per tions last year reached the handsome sum cent! This result was largely due to the of $160,834,758, and it will be seen that unusual stimulus of that wise and liberal the Dominion's first four years' business measure negotiated by the late Lord Elgin, amounts to no less than $566,652,732. the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, and it could These facts we need not enlarge upon. not, therefore, be expected that such a large They go far, as we remarked before, to
, percentage of increase would long be kept establish the commercial success of Conup. Taking the whole period quoted above, federation, and point hopefully to the future. however, the result will be found satisfac- Next in interest to its extent, we may set tory. The highest amount reached during down the character of a nation's commerce, any twelve months was $96,479,738 in and the countries with which it deals. The 1865-6—the year the Reciprocity Treaty nature of our exports are familiar to all. terminated-- and by comparing these figures The great bulk of them are comprised with those for 1850, it will be seen that our under three heads : produce of the forest, commerce increased within a fraction of 325 animals and their products, and agricultural per cent. in fifteen years, or, in other words, productions. Through the courtesy of John doubled the original amount every five Langton, Esq., Auditor General, we are years.
enabled to give in advance a complete We are now in the fifth year of Confedera- return of the exports of the various Protion, and the “blue books” give us the vinces comprising the Dominion, for the result of four years' experience. Of the year ending 30th June, 1871 :
The value of articles exported last year, Silks, Satins and Velvets.... 1,282,132
Hats, Caps, &c......
632,088 which were the actual growth or produce of
6,893,424 the Dominion, was $55,151,047, as will be Fancy Goods..
1,426,460 Glass and Glassware
549,029 seen by the above table. Of this amount, Hardware
2,335, 391 the productions of our farms and forests Iron
1,786,647 Railroad bars, axles, &c.
917,283 make up no less than $44,788,282, or con
Iron--pig, scrap, &c....
1, 134,001 siderably more than three-fourths of the Teas
3,618,304 whole. Less than one-fourth is contributed
1,429, 275 by our fisheries, mines, manufactures and ship- Cane juice, melado, &c
549,898 Coal and Coke...
1,455,936 yards, but it is gratifying to know that these
Wines and spirits.
1,557,339 branches of trade are fairly prosperous, and
Carpets and rugs.
436,408 Cotton wool
427,479 that the returns manifest a moderate annual
317,436 Watches and jewelry
368,602 The imports into Canada from Great
China, Crockery, &c.
431,525 Britain and foreign countries, during 1870-1, Stationery, &c...
537,868 amounted to $86,661,145, and embraced so
346,455 Small wares .........
1,475,921 many different articles that the publication Salt......
540,557 Tobacco (un-manufactured)..
799,944 of a complete list of them would take up too
Leather and leather goods.
612,264 much space. They are chiefly composed Un-enumerated articles..
674,434 of manufactures and tropical productions,
This list of the principal classes of goods of which the principal articles are Cottons, Woollens, Teas, Sugars, Hardware, Iron, in view of the fact that our imports increased
we annually import is highly suggestive, and Coal and Fancy Goods. The Trade and Navigation returns for the last year are not
$19,259,275 during the last two years, and
exceeded our exports during the same yet published, but we have gone over those for 1869-70, and we find our principal asked: are we not importing articles which
period by $13,728,103, it may be properly imports and their values in that year, to
could and ought to be produced profitably have been as follows:-Cottons,
The answer to this $7,270,927
among ourselves ? Linens..
768,828 query must be in the affirmative, but we