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Altercations, renewed till the public was does not presume to touch. But when we more than weary of them, and inquiries in- are called upon to determine whether a stituted with little prospect of a definite re-Government of Ontario or Canada is a coalisult, have brought to light just enough to tion, formed in disregard of party principles, confirm us in the conviction that public life, we must ask ourselves what the principles of if it is the highest of all callings, is the lowest the parties in Ontario or in Canada are. of all trades, and that while there are some The question is a serious one for the compublic men who embrace the calling, there are munity ; for party without party principles others who ply the trade. It is for the youth inevitably becomes faction; and faction as of Canada, at this most critical moment of inevitably supports itself by intrigue, dematheir country's history, highly to resolve that gogism, and corruption. they will shun and discourage the trade, and Lurke has declared party divisions to be that, so far as in them lies, the nation shall inseparable from free government, and in be ruled, not by venal adventurers, but by another well-known passage he has thus depatriotism and honour.

fined party-"Party is a body of men united In these skirmishes, and generally through for promoting, by their joint endeavours, the the Session, the new Opposition appeared in national interest upon some particular prina very unorganized condition. The allegi- ciple in which they are all agreed. For my ance of the party having been withdrawn part, I find it impossible to conceive that from, or declined by, its former chief, the any one believes in his own politics, or thinks lead was assumed, though not very definitely, them to be of any weight, who refuses to by a member universally respected for his adopt the means of having them reduced in. integrity and conscientiousness, but who, as to practice. It is the business of the specua tactician, failed to carry the party with him. lative philosopher to mark the proper ends of His tactics appeared too forensic for a poli- government. It is the business of the political assembly. Extreme tenacity in fighting tician, who is the philosopher in action, to every possible point, however secondary and find out proper means towards those ends, however doubtful, may be the duty of an ad- and to employ them with effect. Therefore vocate and may gratify a client, but it never every honourable connexion will avow it is fails to produce a bad effect on statesmen. their first purpose to pursue every just method A prudent leader will carefully select the to put the men who hold their opinions into issues on which victory is attainable or battle such a condition as may enable them to unavoidable, and will husband the pugnacity carry their common plans into execution, of his party for the decisive field. Such with all the power and authority of the State. caution is especially necessary at a time As this power is attached to certain situawhen the party is discouraged by recent de- tions, it is their duty to contend for these feat and mistrustful of the strategy of its situations. Without a proscription of others,

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they are bound to give to their own party One of the most fruitful themes of recrimi- the preference in all things, and by no means nation was the acceptance by the late Speaker for private considerations to accept any offer of a place in the new Ministry, which was in which the whole body is not included, alleged to have imparted to the Government nor to suffer themselves to be led, or to be the odious character of a coalition. What controlled, or to be overbalanced in office or the ties of this gentleman may have been to council by those who contradict the very his former associates, and whether his accept- fundamental principles on which their party ance of office was a violation of those ties, is formed, and even those upon which every are personal questions, which a by-stander fair connexion must stand. Such a generous contention for power, on such manly and Church of England, the English Land Law, honourable maxims, will easily be distinguish- the remaining limitations on the Franchise, ed from the mean and interested struggle for Denominational Education. But in this place and emolument. The very style of country, now that responsible and Parliasuch persons will serve to discriminate them mentary government has been ally confrom " those nameless impostors who have ceded, the franchise extended almost as far deluded the ignorant with professions incom- as anybody wishes to extend it, and religious patible with human practice, and have after equality established by the secularization of wards incensed them by practices below the the Clergy Reserve, what is the particular level of vulgar rectitude."

principal agreement which holds either of It is remarkable that the very man who the two parties together? What is there for penned this classic apology for party, himself Conservatives to conserve or for Reformers held office under the exceptionally odious coal to reform? What but mere personal fidelity ition of Fox and North, and afterwards broke to connexion binds together our public men, away in the most open and violent manner the chief of whom have in fact for the most from the party with which he had acted all part appeared in every sort of combination ? his life. But not to dwell upon this argu- What is there to preserve our parties from mentum ad hominem, it will be observed that gradually becoming mere factions, and our Burke assumes, as the foundation and justifi- country from becoming the unhappy scene cation of party, agreement in some particular of a perpetual struggle of factions for place, principle, for the promotion of which the and being infested with the corruption and party is formed.

This, he distinctly implies, ail the other evils which the conflicts of unis necessary to prevent the "generous conten- principled ambition produce, and which have tion for power" from becoming “ a mean and infested even England whenever the conflict interested struggle for place and emolument," of principles has slackened, as it did in the to keep a “fair connexion” distinct from a time of Walpole, and in the early part of the gang of impostors with professions above reign of George III ? the level of humanity, and a practice below In Dominion politics there is evidently that of the vulgar, to save the “philosopher still, if not a dividing principle, a dividing inin action” from degenerating into a low-caste terest, which was involved in one of the two politician. And in England a particular questions chiefly raised at the polls in Onprinciple, to form the basis of agreement tario—the assassination of Scott. The other and united action, has always existed and question, the Railway Subsidies Act, was still exists. Every one knows the character- merely administrative, and contained nothistic sentiments and objects of a Cavalier, ing in itself indicative of any party principle, Tory or Conservative, on one side, of a though it may be supposed that the agitation Roundhead, Whig or Radical, on the other. about it was not unconnected with the agitaThe history of British party is a series of tation about the Scott murder, and that both struggles between rival principles in relation were parts of an effort to overthrow a Pro

great questions, such as Prerogative, the vincial Government which was subordinate power of the House of Lords, the conflict and auxiliary to a Dominion Government with the American Colonies, the War against based on the French interest. the French Republic, Religious Emancipa- We repeat that this is a serious question. tion, Parliamentary Reform. And still, in Original as we pride ourselves on being on England, the Conservatives have something this continent, we do in fact import our fashto conserve, the Reformers have something ions rather blindly in politics as well as in to reform--the House of Lords, the State building, food and dress. Party, apparently,


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has its justification, and its sole guarantee free use of the suffrage, and a proof of unagainst corruption, in the circumstances of abated independence of spirit among the the old country, which are such that a man people. of honour may there sink his individual The most important measure of the Sesopinion on minor points to support the leader sion was the abolition of Dual Representawith whom he agrees on the main question ; tion, moved and carried by the new Goverthough even in the old country the unwilling- ment in honourable fulfilment of a pledge ness of independent minds, especially on the given by them in opposition. It appears liberal side, to bow to party discipline, is certain that this measure was desired by the every day increasing, and giving more trouble people. In its first aspect it belongs to a to the party “whip.” In Canada, so far as class of self-denying ordinances well known we can see, party can have no permanent to students of political history as equally justification, no lasting guarantee against popular and unstatesmanlike. Some posicorruption. But as party principle dies tions are radically incompatible with each away, faction, with its system of caucuses, other, as those of a party politician and a wire-pullers and tickets, practically depriving judge. But with these exceptions, able men the people of the free exercise of the fran- do an injury to the State when they preclude chise, will probably increase, and we may at themselves from serving it in any way or last fall under the domination, to use once number of ways in their power ; and the more the masterly language of Burke, “ of people, however they may be gratified by those nameless impostors who have deluded the appearance of self-abnegation and hostilthe ignorant with professions incompatible ity to pluralism, are really wronged when with human practice, and have afterwards good objects are withdrawn from a choice incensed them by practices below the level which is not too often exercised aright. It of vulgar rectitude." Unhappily, however may be too much for most men to sit both incensed the public may be, its ire, when in the Provincial and in the Dominion Legisfaction is once in the saddle, will be vain; latures, though the united sessions are not the wire-pullerbecomes all-powerful, and free equal in length to a session of the British dom of suffrage is gone-gone past redemp- House of Commons. But this difficulty tion-for individual effort is utterly power- would settle itself in each individual case. less against the tyranny which has in its That there will be a sufficiency of able hands the party organization, the nomina- men, at least of able men who can command tion of all candidates, and the press.

seats for both legislatures, is a pleasant asUnder a reign of organized faction, men sumption, but unfortunately not agreeable to of pure mind may, perhaps, continue to experience. The gist of the matter, howenter public life in the belief that they can ever, and the real ground for the measure, no purify it by their influence, but they will doubt lie in the following extracts from the find themselves compelled to pay homage to debate : the wire-puller, to become his accomplices, MR. SINCLAIR asked who in this House though at first with averted eyes, in the use was endeavouring to take away the people's of corrupt agencies, and ultimately to de rights ? Every man in the House had conscend to his level.

sulted his constituents on the subject, and To those who are strongly impressed with his (Mr. Sinclair's) constituents had prothe existence of these dangers, the election nounced in favour of the Bill. There was for North Simcoe of a candidate who pro-one reason why this Bill should pass : it was fessed allegiance to neither of the two organ- this - during the last four years the shadow izations, was welcome as an instance of the l of the Ottawa Government had rested on this

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House. This was peculiarly the case in re- tice quite distinct from the Federal Legislaference to the murder of Thomas Scott. The ture ; yet the influence of Federal party House could not speak out on the matter be- pervades the State Legislatures, and not only cause their action might interfere with the the State Legislature, but the smallest muniaction of the Ottawa Government. The same cipal election. And so it will always be unremark might apply with respect to the ques- der party government. The great organization of the Nova Scotia Subsidy. He hoped tions will everywhere be present, and make that the House would for ever rid itself of everything subservient to themselves. If, the emissaries of the Ottawa Government. indeed, the politics of Ontario could become For these reasons he would cordially support the chief object of interest to her citizens, and the Bill, for it would prove of great benefit the offices of her Government the chief aim to the Province. The passage of this Bill of their ambition, the complete severance would create an Ontario feeling in this House, of the legislatures might have the desired and make every member of the House feel effect. But the departure of the two leaders as proud of his position as if he were a mem- of the Government party, and the two foreber of the Federal Parliament.

most men in the House, from the Provincial MR. BLAKE (President of the Council).- to the Federal Legislature, which is the first The position of the Reform party in regard consequence of the measure, at once demonto the Federal Government was, that they strates that Ottawa, not Toronto, is the cenargued against alliance as well as against hos- tre, even to Ontario politicians; and this tility. Their position was this, that the being the case, it may be taken as certain Local Government should be perfectly inde- that parties, and the leaders of party, at pendent of the Central Government, and Toronto, will continue to be subordinate to should neither be entangled by alliance the leaders at Ottawa. nor embarrassed by hostility. And he spoke The framers of our constitution do not for this Government when he said that it was seem, if we may judge from the debates on prepared to defend itself as against hostile Confederation, to have very clearly forecast efforts; but when Dual Representation was the practical relations of the Federal and abolished, then there was also abolished the Provincial Legislatures to each other under a danger of entangling alliances as well as of system of party government. It is a subject embarassing hostilities. Cases might occur which invites the attention of those interestat Ottawa in the future, when the interests ed in the working of the Constitution. of Ontario might be at stake, and in this The policy of subsidizing railways has event it would be of the highest moment been continued on an extended scale. This that party alliances should not be brought is a question, to some extent, of local exinto play; for her interests might be sacrificed perience, and one which, on that account, a to party considerations. If we desire to pre-by-stander scarcely presumes to approach. serve the independence of the Province, we Yet an experience widely based and applicmust abolish Dual Representation, and the able to all localities assures us,-first, that independence of each of the Provinces was the attempts of a government to stimulate necessary for the working of the Federal sys- private enterprise are apt to lead to improvi

dent undertakings, and thus to a misdirection The object here stated is clear enough, of capital peculiarly injurious in a young but it may be doubted whether it is attain-country; and, secondly, that though the conable. In the United States, though there is, stant control of Parliament may prevent the we believe, no legal restriction on double corrupt action of Government, we have no election, the State Legislatures are in prac- security that Parliament itself will not be


come the scene of corruption. No legisla- been pretty much the same. Farming is ture can be placed by wealth and general mainly practical ; enough of science comes character more above corruption than the to the farmer through associations and jourBritish, yet it is notorious that both Houses nals, or in the concrete form of improved of Parliament were the scenes of great cor- implements, and better bred stock. In Canruption during the carly period of railway ada, still more than in England, energy and legislation. We may add that the phrase endurance are the farmer's science ; and the "opening up of country," so current in con- withdrawal from the scene and the habits of nection with this subject, is one of the many actual labour necessary for attendance at an popular phrases which have a tendency to agricultural college would, probably, in nine mislead. The great object of economical cases out of ten, make the farmer no farmer legislation should be to induce the incoming at all. But in a country where there are no population to settle close and to farm high; large proprietors with long purses to lead the close settlement being, besides nearness to way in agricultural experiment, Government markets and other material advantages, an may do good by practically demonstrating almost necessary condition of high civiliza- that good farming pays well ; and if the tion. The rapid opening up of large tracts model farm serves this purpose it will be a of country has an opposite tendency in both most useful institution. respects. Some parts of the Western States The new Government has honourably enhave been opened up till the farming is about deavoured to guard against corruption, which the worst in the world, and corn, in default is our great and besetting danger in these of purchasers, is sometimes used as fuel. democracies of the new world, by extending Meantime the land is undergoing a process the operation of the law against the acceptof exhaustion which, it is to be feared, even ance of lucrative appointments by members in Canada somewhat threatens our ultimate of Parliament. A high tone of public sentiprosperity as an agricultural nation. ment alone can effectually preserve us from

These questions have been raised by the the pestilence which rages with so much viruexistence of a large surplus. The existence lence to the south of us ; but legal restraints of a surplus, generally speaking, is a proof are not without value. that too much has been taken by Gov- An interesting question was mooted with ernment from the people ; and the most ob- regard to the constitution of the University vious, and in ninety-nine cases out of a hun- of Toronto; but this question awaits its sodred the best, course, is to return the balance lution in the next session. by a remission of taxation, or by providing The operation of the Act against Dual out of the surplus for objects which would Representation will deprive the Parliament otherwise necessarily call for taxation in the of Ontario of a good deal of its oratoric future.

power. But a sufficiency of practical ability The Government model farm formed an- will remain ; and we shall continue to be other topic of discussion. In England, where well governed if members can only learn to scientific farming pays better probably than dismiss from their minds the feuds, in the in any other country, the scientific education prosecution of which so much time and of farmers has, nevertheless, been far from energy have been wasted, and to devote a marked success; and in the United States their undivided attention to the business of the result, so far as we can gather, has the country.



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