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CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-School attendance-Status of children in the households studied Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 360 to 367 and General Tables 272 to 277].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

Home ownership by families the heads of which were of foreign birth may be considered as a strong indication of permanent settlement, and the facts in this connection relative to the families the heads of which were employed in Community F are set forth in the following table, according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 360.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of a total of 654 families studied, 6.1 per cent own homes. The families whose heads are native-born of foreign father show 6.5 per cent as contrasted with 6.3 per cent of the families whose heads are of foreign birth owning homes. Of the families whose heads are foreignborn those whose heads are Poles show 24.4 per cent owning homes, those whose heads are Slovaks show 19.2 per cent, and those whose heads are Scotch show 15 per cent. The families whose heads are

Ruthenians, Slovenians, Bohemians and Moravians, and Magyars, show between 2.2 per cent and 6.3 per cent owning homes, while no families the heads of which are Hebrews, Irish, and Lithuanians, own homes.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of father of pupil, the number and percentage of total pupils in school in Community F.

TABLE 361.-Number and per cent of total pupils in school in Community F, by general nativity and race of father of pupil.

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Of the 10,841 pupils for whom information as to general nativity and race of father was secured, 58.7 per cent are of foreign parentage and 39.4 per cent are children of native whites. The foreign races having the largest representation are, in the order mentioned, the Germans, South Italians, Irish, English, Russian Hebrews, and Slovaks.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the table following, which shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

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TABLE 362.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 586 children who are 6 and under 16 years of age, 5.5 per cent are at home, 91.6 per cent are at school, and 2.9 per cent are at work. The foreign-born children show the highest per cent at home, followed by those native-born of foreign father and those who are native-born whites of native father. The children who are native whites born of native father show the highest percentage at school, followed by those native-born of foreign father and those foreign-born, in the order named. The children of foreign birth show the highest percentage at work, followed by the native-born of foreign father and the native whites born of native father. Of the native children born of foreign father the Ruthenians show the highest percentage at home, closely followed by the Slovenians, while the Hebrews show no children at home. The Hebrews show the highest percentage of children at

school, followed by the Ruthenians and Slovenians in considerably smaller proportions. The Slovenians exhibit the highest percentage of children at work, followed, in the order mentioned, by the Ruthenians and the Hebrews. A larger per cent of males than of females are at home. The per cent of male and female children attending school is the same, while a somewhat higher per cent of females than of males are at work.

The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child, the number and percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 363.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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It appears from the above table that a considerably larger proportion of the children of native fathers and of the native-born children of Magyar fathers than of the foreign-born children of Magyar fathers are at school. The proportion of children at work is largest in the case of the foreign-born children of Magyar fathers, slightly smaller in the case of the native-born children of Magyar fathers, and much smaller in the case of the native-born of native fathers. None of the native-born children of Magyar fathers, as compared with 4.9 per cent of the native-born of native fathers and 13 per cent of the foreign-born children of Magyar fathers, are at home.

CITIZENSHIP.

As regards the interest in and the attainment of citizenship by persons of foreign birth, the table following shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country.

TABLE 364.-Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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Of the foreign-born males for whom information was secured, 37.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 14.4 per cent have first papers only. Among the races for which the percentages have been computed, the Scotch and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Lithuanians and Magyars the smallest proportion of fully naturalized males. The proportion of males who have first papers only is largest for the Scotch and Hebrews, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Ruthenians, Slovenians, and Poles.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

As regards the ability to speak English, the table following shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied who speak English.

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