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rooms, 36.1 per cent apartments of 4 rooms, 19.3 per cent apartments of 5 rooms, 5.6 per cent apartments of 6 rooms, and 2.6 per cent apartments of 7 or more rooms. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show 1.6 per cent of households occupying apartments of 1 room as contrasted with no households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father in apartments of this size; the households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a higher percentage in apartments of 2 and 3 rooms than the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father. The latter, however, show a considerably higher percentage than the former occupying apartments of 4, 5, and 6 rooms. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show 2.8 per cent occupying apartments of 7 or more rooms, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father in apartments of this size. Of households the heads of which are of foreign birth, those the heads of which are Slovenians show 8.2 per cent occupying apartments of 1 room; the households the heads of which are Slovaks and Magyars follow with considerably smaller percentages, while no households the heads of which are of other specified races occupy apartments of this size. The households the heads of which are Magyars show the highest percentage occupying apartments of 2 and 3 rooms, while no households the heads of which are Scotch occupy apartments of that number of rooms. The households the heads of which are Irish show the highest percentage occupying apartments of 4 rooms and households the heads of which are Scotch the highest percentage occupying apartments of 5 and 6 rooms. The households the heads of which are Scotch show the lowest percentage occupying apartments of 4 rooms, and households the heads of which are Ruthenians the lowest percentage occupying apartments of 5 rooms. No households the heads of which are Magyars and Slovaks occupy apartments of 6 rooms and no households the heads of which are Hebrews, Lithuanians, Scotch, Slovenians, and Slovaks, occupy apartments of 7 or more rooms. The households the heads of which are Poles show the highest percentage occupying apartments of 7 or more rooms, closely followed by the households the heads of which are Syrians.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS.

The table following exhibits the range in size of households studied by showing, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

TABLE 350.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From the above table it appears that 6.2 per cent of the households in this locality for which information was secured are of two persons, 12.6 per cent of three persons, 16.7 per cent of four persons, 18.4 per cent of five persons, 14.9 per cent of six persons, 10.2 per cent of seven persons, 9.2 per cent of eight persons, 6.4 per cent of nine persons, and 5.4 per cent of ten persons or more. The proportion of households of two, four, five, and seven persons, respectively, is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born, and the proportion of households of three, six, and ten or more persons, respectively, is larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father. None of the households of the native-born, of foreign father, as compared with 9.7 per cent of the households of the foreignborn, are of eight persons, and none of the households of the nativeborn of foreign father, as compared with 6.9 per cent of the households of the foreign-born, are of nine persons. The average number of persons per household in all households is 5.61. It will be noted that the average number of persons per household is considerably larger in the households of the foreign-born than in the households of the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Ruthenians, Syrians, and Lithuanians have the largest and the Scotch, Irish, and Slovenians the smallest average number of persons per household.

CONGESTION.

Preceding tables indicate the extent to which crowding prevails in the households studied in the community. The degree of congestion and its effects upon living arrangements is more directly set forth in the following series of tables.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room:

TABLE 351.-Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In 610 households studied the average number of persons per apartment is 5.61, the average number of persons per room is 1.42, and the average number of persons per sleeping room is 2.34. The households whose heads are of foreign birth show the highest average number of persons per apartment and per room, the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father and the households whose heads are native-born whites of native father following in the order named. The households whose heads are native-born of foreign father show the highest average number of persons per sleeping room, followed by the households whose heads are of foreign birth and the households whose heads are native-born of native father. Of the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father, those whose heads are of Polish parentage show a higher number of persons per room and per sleeping room than the households whose heads are of Irish parentage. Of the households whose heads are of foreign birth, those whose heads are Ruthenians show the highest average number of persons per apartment, followed by the households whose heads are Syrians and Lithuanians, each showing over six persons per apartment. The households whose heads are Hebrews, Slovaks, Magyars, Poles, South Italians, Slovenians, and Irish show an average of from 5.08 to 5.81 persons per apartment. The households whose heads are Bohemians and Moravians, Scotch, and Welsh show an average of between 4.50 and 4.53 persons per apartment. The households the heads of

which are Ruthenians show 1.93 persons per room, the households the heads of which are Lithuanians and Magyars show an average of 1.61 and 1.64 persons per room, respectively, while the households the heads of which are Slovaks show 1.56 and Slovenians show 1.55 persons per room. The households the heads of which are Scotch and Welsh show the lowest average number of persons per room, which is 0.87 and 0.82, respectively. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians show an average of 2.79 persons per sleeping room, the households the heads of which are North Italians, Magyars, Slovenians, and Poles showing an average of between 2.43 and 2.48 persons per sleeping room. The households the heads of which are Scotch, Armenians, South Italians, Welsh, and Syrians show an average of less than two persons per sleeping room.

The table next presented shows persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 352.-Persons per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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Of the households in this locality for which information was secured, 85.1 per cent have one or more persons per room, 24.9 per cent have two or more persons per room, 3.8 per cent have three or more persons per room, and 0.3 per cent have four or more persons per room. The proportion of households having each specified number of persons per room is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born of the races for which percentages have been computed, the Ruthenians, Lithuanians, Magyars, Syrians, Slovenians, and Poles have the largest pro

portion of households having one or more persons per room; the Ruthenians, Magyars, Slovaks, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of households having two or more persons per room; and the Ruthenians, Lithuanians, and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of households having three or more persons per room. The average number of persons per room in all households is 1.42. It will be noted that the average number of persons per room is considerably larger in the households of the foreign-born than in the households of the nativeborn of foreign father. Of the households of the foreign-born, those of which the heads are Ruthenians, Magyars, Lithuanians, Slovaks, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and those of which the heads are Welsh, Scotch, and Irish have the smallest average number of persons per room.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, persons per sleeping room:

TABLE 353.-Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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In the households for this locality for which information was secured the average number of persons per sleeping room is 2.34. The average number of persons per sleeping room is larger in the households of the native-born of foreign father than in the households of the foreign-born, and is smallest in the households of the nativeborn of native father. Of the households of the foreign-born, those of which the heads are Ruthenians, North Italians, Slovenians, Mag

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