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The households the heads of which are foreign-born show a small per cent paying under $5 per month per apartment as contrasted with no households the head of which are native-born of foreign father. The households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher percentage paying under $7.50, under $10, under $12.50, and under $15 rent per month per apartment than do households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, while the households the heads of which are of foreign birth show only a slightly higher percentage paying under $20 than do households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. Households the heads of which are Slovenians show 8.7 per cent paying under $5 rent per apartment per month as contrasted with no households the heads of which are of other specified races paying under this amount. The households the heads of which are Magyars show the highest percentage paying under $7.50 and under $10 rent per month per apartment, while the households the heads of which are Scotch show no households paying under $7.50 and only a small proportion paying under $10. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians show 100 per cent paying under $12.50 as compared with only 23.5 per cent of households the heads of which are Scotch paying this amount. The households the heads of which are Lithuanians, Poles, Ruthenians, and Slovenians exhibit 100 per cent and households the heads of which are Scotch only 41.2 per cent paying under $15 per month per apartment. The households the heads of which are of other races shown in the table, except the Irish, Syrian, and Scotch, show 100 per cent paying under $20 rent per apartment. The households whose heads are of the three races mentioned show between 85.3 and 87.5 per cent paying the above amount.

In the table next presented the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room is shown, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 345.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 567 households studied 3.7 per cent pay under $2 rent per month per room, 64.6 per cent pay under $3, and 96.3 per cent pay under $4. The households whose heads are foreign-born show 4 per cent paying under $2 rent per month per room, while no households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father pay under the above-mentioned amount. The households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably higher per cent paying under $3 and a slightly smaller percentage paying under $4 rent per month per room, than do households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. The households the heads of which are Syrians show the highest per cent paying under $2, followed in the order named by the households the heads of which are Magyars, Ruthenians, Slovenians, and Scotch, in much smaller proportions. No households the heads of which are Hebrews, Irish, Lithuanians, Poles, and Slovaks pay under $2 rent per month per room. The households the heads of which are Ruthenian, show the highest per cent, and those whose heads are Syrians the lowest per cent, paying under $3, while households the heads of which are Poles and Ruthenians show 100 per cent paying under $4 rent per month per room, and households the heads of which are Syrians show only 87 per cent paying under the above specified amount.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households studied by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 346.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 567 households paying rent and reporting the amount 5.5 per cent pay under $1 rent per month per person, 51 per cent pay under $2, 78.1 per cent pay under $3, and 91.4 per cent pay under $4 rent per month per person. The households whose heads are of foreign

birth show 5.9 per cent paying under $1, as contrasted with no households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father paying under this amount of rent per month per person. The households whose heads are foreign-born also show a considerably higher percentage paying under $2, under $3, and under $4 rent per month per person than do the households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father. Of the households the heads of which are foreign born, those whose heads are Ruthenians show the highest per cent paying under $1 rent per month per person, followed in the order mentioned by the households whose heads are Magyars, Lithuanians, and Slovenians, in considerably smaller proportions. No households the heads of which are of other specified races pay under the above-mentioned amount. The households the heads of which are Ruthenians exhibit the highest per cent paying under $2, under $3, and under $4 rent per month per person, and the households the heads of which are Scotch the smallest percentage paying under each of the above-specified amounts.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of the wives of employees in the community to supplement the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home has been discussed in a preceding chapter. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which exhibits the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

Table 347.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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In this locality 38.7 per cent of the households for which information was secured keep boarders or lodgers. The proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers is much larger in the case of the foreignborn households than in the case of households of which the heads are native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, of the races for which the percentages have been computed, the Lithuanians, Syrians, and Ruthenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovaks and Scotch the smallest proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, the averages being based (1) on the total number of households and (2) on the number of households taking boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 348.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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In this locality the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based upon the total number of households, is 1.05, and the average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based upon the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is 2.72. The foreign-born households have a much larger average number

of boarders or lodgers per household, based upon the total number of households, than have the households of native-born of foreign father. Of the households of the foreign-born, those of Syrian, Lithuanian, Ruthenian, Magyar, and South Italian heads have the largest, and those of Slovak and Scotch heads the smallest average number of boarders or lodgers per household, based upon the total number of households. The average number of boarders per household, based upon the total number of households keeping boarders or lodgers, is largest for the Syrians, Magyars, Lithuanians, and Ruthenians, in the order mentioned.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in size of apartments occupied is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 349.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of "ooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have an average of 4.13 rooms per apartment, the average number of rooms in apartments occupied by households the heads of which are of foreign birth is 3.91, while the average number of rooms per apartment for the total number of households studied is 3.95. It will be further observed that of the 610 households studied 1.5 per cent occupy apartments of 1 room, 6.9 per cent apartments of 2 rooms, 28 per cent apartments of 3

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