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and the Poles and South Italians the smallest proportion of males who worked nine months or over during the year.

In the table below the months worked during the past year by females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home are shown according to general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 341.-Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 188 females 16 years of age or over who reported complete data, 79.8 per cent worked twelve months, 90.4 per cent worked nine months or over, 96.3 per cent worked six months or over, and 98.4 per cent worked three months or over during the past year. The foreign-born females show a considerably higher percentage than the females who are nativeborn of foreign father who worked the full year; the females who are native-born of foreign father show a considerably higher percentage than those of foreign birth who worked nine months or over. The females who are native-born of foreign father also show 100 per cent who worked six months or over and three months or over as contrasted with somewhat smaller proportions of the foreignborn females who worked for this length of time.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The smallness of the extent to which the immigrant wage-earners are members of labor organizations is set forth in the table following, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males in the households studied who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 342.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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In this locality only 4.3 per cent of the males for whom information was secured are affiliated with trade unions. The proportion of males affiliated with trade unions is much larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, the Scotch and Irish, in the order mentioned, have by far the largest proportion of males who are affiliated with trade unions.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households-Congestion-[Text Tables 343 to 354 and General Tables 255 to 266].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households, the heads of which are employed in Community F, are chiefly significant in their bearing upon the standard of living, because of congestion within the households, arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent per month paid per apartment, per room, and per person.

TABLE 343.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The above table shows that the average rent per month of 567 households studied is $10.57 per apartment, $2.73 per room, and $1.90 per person. The households whose heads are native whites born of native father pay a considerably higher average rent per apartment per month than do households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and foreign-born. The average monthly rent per room paid by households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father is slightly higher than that paid by house

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holds the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and foreignborn. The households whose heads are native-born of native father also show a considerably higher average rent per month, per person, than do the households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father; the households the heads of which are of foreign birth show a considerably lower average monthly rental per person than do the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father. Of the households the heads of which are of foreign birth, those whose heads are Scotch show an average monthly rental per apartment of $15.59, the households whose heads are Syrians pay $14.89, and those whose heads are Irish $13.75, as contrasted with the households whose heads are Ruthenians, paying $8.68, those whose heads are Magyars $8.39, and those whose heads are Slovenians $8.28. The households whose heads are Syrians and Scotch show an average rent per room per month of over $3 as contrasted with the households whose heads are Ruthenians and Lithuanians paying $2.50 and $2.49 rent per room, respectively. The households whose heads are Scotch pay a monthly rent per person of $3.49, which is far in excess of the rent paid by households whose heads are of other specified races, households whose heads are Ruthenians paying the lowest average rent per person per month, which is $1.26.

The range in monthly rent for apartments is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment.

TABLE 344.—Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all

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The above table shows that of 567 households paying rent, 1.2 per cent pay under $5 per month, 16.9 per cent pay under $7.50, 43 per cent pay under $10, 77.1 per cent pay under $12.50, 86.4 per cent pay under $15, and 97 per cent under $20 rent per month per apartment.

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