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tion as having an income from other sources, the Ruthenians showing the largest and the Lithuanians the smallest.

In the following table, in which the sources of family income are again shown in detail, each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families appearing under each designated source have their entire income from that source.

TABLE 338.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, the largest proportion, or 36.8 per cent, have their entire income from husband-28.5 per cent having entire income from husband and boarders and lodgers; 11.1 per cent having entire income from husband and children; and 5.1 per cent having entire income from husband and wife. Less than 2 per cent have their entire income from any other specified source, while 15 per cent have their entire income. from sources or combination of sources not specified. All of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have their entire income from husband, husband and children, husband and boarders or lodgers, and sources not specified, while the families the heads of which are foreign-born, in addition to showing a smaller proportion having entire income from husband and a larger proportion having entire income from husband and children, husband and boarders or lodgers, and sources not specified, shows also a certain small proportion having entire income from each other specified source, except wife and boarders or lodgers.

The largest proportion of the families the heads of which are of each given race have their entire income from husband, husband and children, husband and boarders and lodgers, and sources or combination of sources not specified, less than 10 per cent of the families the heads of which are of each race having their entire income from any other specified source.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The relative importance of the different sources of income of the families studied in the community may be seen from the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 339.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total yearly income of 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, 71.4 per cent is from earnings of husband, 14.4 per cent from contributions of children, 7.3 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, 3 per cent from earnings of wife, and 3.8 per cent from other sources. A higher proportion of the yearly income of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father than of the families the heads of which are foreign-born is from earnings of husband, while the proportion of the yearly income from each other source is larger for the families the heads of which are foreign-born than for the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. Considering the foreign-born, by race, it is seen that the proportion of total income from earnings of husband ranges

from 77.7 per cent for the families the heads of which are Slovenians, to 55.7 per cent for the families the heads of which are Irish, while the proportion from the earnings of wife range from 8.7 per cent for the families the heads of which are Ruthenians to none for the families the heads of which are Hebrew or Polish. The children of the families the heads of which are Irish contribute 31.6 per cent, while the children of the families the heads of which are Ruthenians contribute 5.4 per cent of the total income, the proportion of the total income contributed by the children of the families the heads of which are of each other given race ranging from 25.7 per cent for the Slovaks to 7.8 per cent for the Lithuanians and Magyars, each. The families the heads of which are Lithuanians show the largest and the families the heads of which are Scotch the smallest proportion of their total yearly income from the payments of boarders or lodgers. The families the heads of which are of each specified race, except Hebrew, have a certain proportion of their yearly income from sources not specified in this table, the proportions ranging from 15.1 per cent for the Pole to less than 1 per cent for the Lithuanian or Slovenian.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-The immigrant and organized labor-[Text Tables 340 to 342 and General Table 254].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The table which immediately follows shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home.

TABLE 340.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the males 16 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 98.9 per cent worked three months or over during the past year, 97 per cent worked six months or over, 78.3 per cent worked nine months or over, and 47.5 per cent worked twelve months. The proportion of males who worked twelve months and nine months or over, respectively, is considerably larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born, the Irish, Ruthenians, and Bohemians and Moravians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Magyars and Slovenians the smallest proportion of males who worked twelve months and the Bohemians and Moravians, Irish, Hebrews, and Lithuanians have the largest

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