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It appears from the preceding table that only 3 per cent of the male employees for whom information was secured earn under $200 per year, that 29.1 per cent earn under $400, that 74 per cent earn under $600, and that 96.8 per cent earn under $1,000. The proportion of males earning under $200 and under $400 per year, respectively, is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born, while the proportion of males earning under $600 and under $1,000, respectively, is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the Poles, South Italians, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of males earning under $400 per year and the Lithuanians, Magyars and South Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of males earning under $600 per year. All of the Bohemians and Moravians, South Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, Slovaks, Slovenians and Syrians, and over 98 per cent of the Ruthenians, Magyars and Hebrews earn under $1,000 per year.

The yearly earnings of all the males for whom information was secured average $524. It will be noted that the average yearly earnings of the native-born of native father are higher than the average yearly earnings of the native-born of foreign father, and that the average yearly earnings of the native-born of foreign father are considerably higher than the average yearly earnings of the foreignborn. Of the foreign-born, the Scotch, Welsh, and Irish, in the order mentioned, have the largest, and the Poles, Magyars, South Italians, Lithuanians, Slovaks, Slovenians and Syrians the smallest average yearly earnings.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tables next presented, the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The table first submitted in this connection shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount:

TABLE 334.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The average yearly income of the 592 families selected for study in the preceding table is $763-the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father having an income of $856 and the families the heads of which are foreign-born having an income of $757 per annum. The average yearly income of the families the heads of which are of each specified race ranges from $1,366 for the Scotch to $601 for the Slovenians, the Irish being the only race besides the Scotch showing an average yearly income as high as $1,000. Of the total number of families 93.8 per cent have a total yearly income under $1,500; 82.6 per cent under $1,000; 61.5 per cent under $750; 23.3 per cent under $500; and 3.7 per cent under $300. The families the heads of which are foreign-born show a larger proportion than the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, having a total income under each specified amount except $1,500-all of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father having a total income under $1,500, as compared with 93.3 per cent of the families the heads of which are foreign-born. None of the families the heads of which are Irish or Scotch have a total yearly income of less than $500, as compared with a range of from 50 per cent of the families the heads of which are Slovak to 12.8 per cent of the families the heads of which are Hebrew. Over 50 per cent of the families the heads of which are of each specified race, except Irish, Polish, and Scotch, have a total yearly income under $750 per annum-the families the heads of which are of the same races being the only ones showing less than 75 per cent having a total yearly income under $1,000. A certain proportion of the families the heads of which are of each race have a total income of $1,500 or over-the Scotch showing the largest and the Slovenian the smallest.

WIVES AT WORK.

The tendency on the part of the wives in the families studied to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands is indicated by the table next submitted. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of wives at work.

TABLE 335.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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a For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From information secured from 584 wives it was found that 8 per cent are at work. Of the foreign-born wives 8.3 per cent are at work, as contrasted with 4.8 per cent of the native-born wives who are at work. Of the foreign-born wives the Ruthenians show 17.5 per cent at work, families whose heads are Magyars show 13.2 per cent of wives at work, families whose heads are Slovenians show 11.3 per cent of wives are at work, while families whose heads are Scotch, Slovaks, Irish, and Lithuanians exhibit less than 6 per cent of wives who are working.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been seen that only a small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the husbands by keeping boarders or lodgers. The extent to which this is done is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 336.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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a This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as “
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

none."

It appears from the above table that 52.8 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn under $400 per year, as compared with 50.4 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600, 27.9 per cent of the wives whose husbands earn $600 or over, and 42.9 per cent of all wives for whom information was secured, have employment or keep boarders or lodgers. In other words, the proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is largest where the earnings of husbands are smallest. While this is true of all wives, it will be noted that in the case of the Slovenians and Poles a larger proportion of wives whose husbands earn $600 or over than of wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 have employment or keep boarders or lodgers, and that in the case of the Ruthenians, Magyars, and Lithuanians a larger proportion of wives whose husbands earn $400 and under $600 than of wives whose husbands earn under $400 have employment or keep boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are indicated in detail by the table. next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 337.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 592 families selected for study in the foregoing table, 95.9 per cent have an income from earnings of husband and only 7 9 per cent have an income from earnings of wife. The children of 17.9 per cent of the families make contributions, and 36.8 per cent of the families augment their income by keeping boarders or lodgers, while 12.3 per cent of the families have an income from other sources. All of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have an income from earnings of husbands and none have an income from earnings of wife, while 95.6 per cent of the families the heads of which are foreign-born have an income from the earnings of husband and 8.2 per cent have an income from the earnings of wife. A larger proportion of the families the heads of which are foreign-born than of the families the heads of which are native-born of foreign father have an income from contributions of children, payments of boarders or lodgers, and other sources. All of the families the heads of which are Lithuanian, Polish, Scotch, and Slovak; over 90 per cent of the families the heads of which are Hebrew, Magyar, Ruthenian, and Slovenian; and 78.3 per cent of the families the heads of which are Irish have an income from the earnings of husband. The proportion of families the heads of which are of each race, except Hebrew and Polish, having an income from earnings of wife, ranges from 17.2 per cent of the Ruthenian to 2 per cent of the Lithuanian. The proportion of families the heads of which of each race receiving contributions from children ranges from 43.5 per cent of the Irish to 6 per cent of the Ruthenians, and the proportion having an income from payments of boarders or lodgers ranges from 74 per cent of the Lithuanians to 4.2 per cent of the Slovaks. The families the heads of which are of each race, except the Hebrews, show a certain propor

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