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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgersSources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 325 to 339 and General Tables 244 to 253].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households in Community F, the industrial condition and principal occupations of immigrant workers and members of their households while abroad are set forth. The table first presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country:

TABLE 325.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the males in this locality for whom information was secured, 4.1 per cent were without occupation abroad, 49.4 per cent worked for wages, 36.6 per cent worked without wages, and 10 per cent worked

for profit. The proportion of males who were without occupation is largest for the Hebrews and Syrians, in the order mentioned, and the proportion of males who worked for profit is much larger for the Syrians than for the males of any other race. The Scotch and Bohemians and Moravians have the largest proportion of males who worked for wages abroad, and the Slovenians and Ruthenians have by far the largest proportion of males who worked without wages.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country.

TABLE 326.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the males in this locality for whom information was secured, 36.1 per cent were farm laborers, working without wages, before coming to the United States, 19.6 per cent worked for wages as farm laborers, 5.1 per cent worked for wages as factory operatives, 16.4 per cent worked for wages in hand trades, 6 per cent worked for wages in occupations not specified, and 8.5 per cent worked for profit as farmers. Only a very small proportion of the males for whom information was secured worked for wages as miners or general laborers, without wages in occupations not specified, or for profit in hand trades or in occupations not specified. The proportion of males who worked as farm laborers without wages is largest for the Slovenians and Ruthenians, in the order mentioned, and the proportion of males who worked as farm laborers for wages is largest for the Poles, Magyars, South Italians, Bohemians and Moravians, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned. The Scotch, Bohemians and Moravians, and the Syrians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Ruthenians the smallest proportion of males who worked for

wages in the hand trades, and the Syrians have the largest proportion of males who worked for profit as farmers.

In the following table the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming is shown by race of individual:

TABLE 327.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that of the foreign-born females for whom information was secured, 39.6 per cent were without occupation abroad, while 15.7 per cent worked for wages, 43.9 per cent worked without wages, and only 0.7 per cent worked for profit. All of the Hebrews were without occupation before coming to the United States. With this exception, the proportion of females who were without occupation is largest for the Irish and Scotch, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. The Lithuanians, Magyars, and Scotch, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of females who worked for wages, and the Ruthenians, Slovenians, Poles, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of females who worked without wages.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country:

TABLE 328.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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In this locality 43.5 per cent of the females for whom information was secured were farm laborers, working without wages, before coming to the United States, 6.9 per cent were farm laborers, working for wages, 4.6 per cent worked for wages in domestic service, and only a very small proportion worked as factory operatives, in the hand trades, or in occupations not specified, for wages, or in occupations not specified without wages, or as farmers for profits. The proportion of females who worked as farm laborers without wages is largest for the Ruthenians, Slovenians, Poles, and Lithuanians, in the order mentioned. The Lithuanians have by far the largest proportion of females who worked as farm laborers for wages, and the Magyars and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of females who were in domestic service.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied.

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