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From the preceding table it appears that a considerably larger proportion of foreign-born persons who came to the United States when under 14 years of age than of those who came here when 14 or over are able to speak English. Of the persons who came here when under 14, all of the Swedes and a larger proportion of the South Italians than of the Magyars and Slovaks can speak English. The proportion of persons who came here when 14 or over who speak English is largest for the Swedes, second largest for the Slovaks, and smallest for the South Italians.

The progress shown by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English after stated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by years in the United States, and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English.

TABLE 319.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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It appears from the above table that 26.4 per cent of the foreignborn persons who have been in the United States under five years can speak English as compared with 65.7 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine years and 86.3 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over. In other words, there is an increase in the proportion of persons who speak English with years of residence in the United States. This increase appears in the case of the different races for which the percentages are given, as well as in the case of all employees. All of the Swedes who have been in this country ten years or over, as compared with 87.5 per cent of those who have been here under five years, can speak English.

REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY F.

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REPRESENTATIVE COMMUNITY F.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Industrial significance of the community-Households studied—Members of households for whom detailed information was secured-[Text Tables 320 to 323 and General Tables 241 and 242].

INDUSTRIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF COMMUNITY.

Community F, New York, is a manufacturing town, north of New York City, situated on the Hudson River. In 1880 it was a town of 18,892 persons, but since then its growth has been remarkable. In 1890 the census returns gave it a population of 32,033, and in 1900 it had become a city of 47,931 persons. From 1900 to 1905 it showed the most extraordinary growth, setting the figure of 61,414 in population. In racial composition the population is largely foreign, 30.4 per cent being foreign-born, 38.5 per cent native-born of foreign father, and but 28.7 per cent native-born of native father.

Through the industrial activities of two manufactures-molasses refining and carpet making-the manufactured products of the city showed tremendous growth between 1900 and 1905, the number of employees rising from 7,555 to 9,779, and the value of products from $17,303,690 to $33,548,688, an increase of 29.4 per cent in the first and 93.9 per cent in the second instance. The disproportionate increase in the number of employees and the value of the products are due to the installation of labor-saving machinery in the carpet mills and molasses refineries.

New York State ranks second in the manufacture of carpets, products to the value of $19,404,133 being produced in 1905 by 10,225 employees. The value of the industry to Community F may best be realized when it is noted that 6,061 out of the total number of 9,779 employees are employed in the four carpet factories. The labor and wage conditions are good in the city, and employees in the carpet factories all work from fifty-two to fifty-seven hours per week.

HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

A total of 610 households, the heads of which were employed in the various industries of Community F, were studied in detail. The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of the households of each race studied.

TABLE 320.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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It appears, from the data presented in the above table, that the heads of 92.6 per cent of the households studied in this locality are foreign-born, that the heads of 5.1 per cent of the households are native-born of foreign father, and that the heads of 2.3 per cent of the households are native-born of native father. Among the households of foreign-born heads, those of which the heads are Ruthenians, Magyars, and Slovenians, in the order mentioned, have the largest and those of which the heads are Armenians, North Italians, and Welsh have the smallest representation.

MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

In the next table the persons in the households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured are shown according to general nativity and race of head of household.

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