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CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-School attendance Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables 313 to 319 and General Tables 235 to 240].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The accumulation of property is not only an indication of thrift on the part of the owner, but, where the owner is a person of foreign birth, it also exhibits a tendency toward permanent settlement in the United States. In this connection the following table is submitted which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and percentage of families owning home.

TABLE 313.—Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Information concerning 416 families was obtained in this locality, of which number only 40.6 per cent own homes, the foreign-born reporting 39.9 per cent as compared with 53.6 per cent of the nativeborn of foreign father and 22.2 per cent of the native whites born of native father.

Among the foreign-born it will be seen that the Swedes, with 87.9 per cent owning homes, report a much larger proportion than do the Welsh, who in turn show a considerably larger proportion than do the Magyars, a much larger proportion than do the South Italians, and a very much larger proportion than do the Slovaks, who report

only 9.5 per cent of their number as owning homes. Among the native-born of foreign father the proportion of Germans owning homes, 66.7 per cent, is considerably in excess of that shown by the Irish, who report but 42.9 per cent.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented is instructive as indicating the tendency on the part of children in the families studied to attend school or go to work when working age is reached. The table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 314.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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Of native white children born of native father who are 6 and under 16 years of age concerning whom information was secured, 9 per cent are at home, 88.8 per cent are at school, and 2.2 per cent are at work. Among children whose fathers were South Italians a slightly larger percentage of those who were born in the United States are at school than of those who were born abroad, while the proportion of children who were born abroad who are at home and are at work is slightly larger than the proportion of those who were born in the United States who are thus occupied. Magyar children who were born abroad show a considerably higher percentage at home than those who were born in the United States. The propor tion of those who were born in the United States and are at school is larger than the proportion of those who were born abroad and are thus occupied, while about the same proportion of both classes are at work. The per cent of children who are native-born whites of native father who are at school is considerably larger than the per cent of foreign-born children at school, while the per cent of foreign-born children at work is very much higher than that of native-born white children of native father who are thus engaged.

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of father of pupil, the number and percentage of total pupils in school in Scranton, Pa.

TABLE 315.-Number and per cent of total pupils in school in Community E, by general nativity and race of father of pupil.

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In this locality information was secured as to general nativity and race of father of 16,157 pupils in public and 3,382 pupils in parochial schools. The proportion of pupils of foreign parentage is 52.5 per cent in public and 39 per cent in parochial schools, and the proportion of children of native whites is 47.1 per cent in public and 60.9 per cent in parochial schools. In the public schools the foreign races having the largest representation are the Irish, German, Welsh, English, and Lithuanian, while in the parochial schools the Polish, German, and Irish, in the order mentioned, are the principal

races.

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which foreign-born males, in the households studied in the community, have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 316-Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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Of the foreign-born males for whom information was secured, 43.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 8.9 per cent have first papers only. All of the Welsh and 95.5 per cent of the Swedes are fully naturalized, as compared with 28.8 per cent of the South Italians and 26.6 per cent of the Magyars. The proportion of persons having first papers only is larger for the Magyars and South Italians than for the persons of any other race for which the percentages have been computed.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The extent to which foreign-born persons of non-English-speaking races, in the households studied, are able to speak English is set forth in the following series of tables. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English.

TABLE 317.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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It appears from the above table that of the persons for whom information was secured, 66.7 per cent of the males and 64 per cent of the females can speak English. The proportion of males and females who speak English is much larger for native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born males, all of the Swedes, 67.9 per cent of the Slovaks, and between 50 and 60 per cent of the Magyars and South Italians can speak English. The proportion of foreign-born females who can speak English is largest for the Swedes and smallest for the South Italians.

The following table makes possible a comparison of the relative proportion of the younger and older immigrants able to speak English. The table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States, and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English.

TABLE 318.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how ever, fs for all non-English-speaking races.]

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