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and read and write is largest for the Magyars and smallest for the South Italians.

The degree of literacy prevailing among persons of foreign birth, in the households studied, after designated periods of residence in this country is considered in the table next presented. The table shows, by race of individual and by years in the United States, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the percentage who were able to read and write.

TABLE 309.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Among the persons for whom information was secured, 58.8 per cent of those who have been in the United States under five years, 62.1 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine years, and 85.5 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, can read only, and 57.2 per cent of those who have been here under five years, 59 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine years, and 84.2 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over, can both read and write. It will be noted that the proportion of all foreignborn persons who are able to read and to read and write increases steadily with the years of residence in the United States. This is not true, however, of the several races for which the percentages are given. The proportion of South Italians who can read and read and write is largest in the case of persons who have been in the United States from five to nine years, second largest in the case of persons who have been here ten years or over, and smallest in the case of persons who have been here under five years, while the proportion of Magyars and Slovaks who can read and read and write is largest in the case of persons who have been here ten years or over, second largest in the case of persons who have been here under five years, and smallest in the case of persons who have been here from five to nine years. All of the Swedes and Welsh, in the groups for which the percentages are given, are able to read and to read and write.

The literacy of foreign-born persons in the households studied, according to age at the time of coming to the United States, is exhibited in the table following, which shows, by race of individual and by age at time of arrival in this country, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the percentage who were able both to read and write.

TABLE 310.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that of the foreign-born persons for whom information was secured 87.4 per cent of those who came to the United States when under 14 years of age and 65.4 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over can read only, and that 85 per cent of those who came here when under 14 and 63.6 per cent of those who came here when 14 or over can both read and write. All of the Swedes and Welsh, irrespective of age at time of arrival, are able both to read and to read and write. In the case of the South Italians, Magyars, and Slovaks a considerably larger proportion of persons who came here when under 14 than of persons who came here when 14 or over are able to read and to read and write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The following table shows, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in the households studied in each conjugal condition:

TABLE 311.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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TABLE 311.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual-Continued.

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The preceding table shows that of 1,177 persons for whom information was secured, and who are 20 years of age or over, 73.3 per cent are married and 3.3 per cent are widowed. Of those from 20 to 29 years of age 50.4 per cent are married and 0.6 per cent are widowed. In the group of persons from 30 to 44 years of age 89.4 per cent are married and 2 per cent are widowed, while of those 45 years of age or over 87.1 per cent are married and 10.5 per cent are widowed. In the group of persons from 20 to 29 years of age the foreign-born show a very much higher percentage married than either the native-born whites of native father or the native-born of of foreign father, which follow in the order named. Of persons from 30 to 44 years of age the native-born whites of native father show a higher percentage who are married, followed by the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born. The native whites born of native father report no persons widowed in either group and the native-born of foreign father no persons widowed in the group from 30 to 44 years of age. Of persons 45 years of age or over and 20 years of age or over the foreign-born show the highest percentage married, followed by the native-born of foreign father and the nativeborn whites of native father in the order mentioned. In each of

these groups the native-born of foreign father show the highest per cent widowed. In the total number of the South Italians and Magyars reporting the latter shows a slightly higher percentage than the former of married persons, while the South Italians show a higher percentage who are widowed than the Magyars. In the groups including persons from 20 to 29 years of age, from 30 to 44 years of age, and 20 years of age or over, females show a higher percentage married than males, while of persons 45 years of age or over males exhibit a higher percentage married than females. In the group of persons from 20 to 29 years of age males show the highest percentage widowed, while females exhibit greater proportions widowed in each succeeding group than males.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons, in the households studied, within each age group.

TABLE 312.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household.

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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TABLE 312.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household-Continued.

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Of the 2,238 persons included in the preceding table the largest proportion, or 21 per cent, are from 20 to 29 years of age, the proportion who are from 30 to 44, under 6, and from 6 to 13 years of age following in the order named, and approximately the same proportion being from 14 to 19 years of age as 45 years of age or over. The difference between the proportions of persons, in the households the heads of which are of each nativity group, who are within each specified age group is comparatively small. Over 50 per cent of the persons in the households the heads of which are South Italians, Magyars, Swedes, and Welsh are 20 years of age or over, and over 50 per cent of the persons in the households the heads of which are Slovaks are under 14 years of age. A difference of less than 10 per cent is shown between the proportions of the total number of males and females within each specified age group. The proportion of persons in the households the heads of which are of each nativity group, as well as the proportion of persons in the households the heads of which are of each race is, generally speaking, very well divided between the sexes.

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