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each specified number of persons per room is only slightly in excess of the proportions shown in the totals for all households studied-those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father showing a smaller proportion with two or more and a smaller proportion having one or more, and those households the heads of which are native whites born of native father a proportion having one or more persons per room very much below that shown in the total for all households.

Among those households whose heads are foreign-born it will be noted that no Swedish or Welsh and only small proportions of Magyar, South Italian, and Slovak households have three or more persons per room, and that no Swedish or Welsh have two or more persons-the proportions of Slovak, South Italian, and Magyar households having this specified number of perons ranging from 30 to 17.3 per cent. Of those households having one or more persons per room, the South Italian with 89.2 per cent show a slightly larger proportion than the Slovak or Magyar and a very much larger proportion than the Welsh or Swedish households, in the order named, the last named reporting but 33.3 per cent. Among those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father it will be noted that no Irish households have three or more and that no German, as compared with 3.7 per cent of the Irish, have two or more, while the proportion of Irish households having one or more persons per room is greater than the proportion of German households.

The following table enumerates the persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household:

TABLE 306.-Persons per sleeping room, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The preceding table shows that 70.1 per cent of the total number of households concerning which information was secured have 2 or more persons per sleeping room, 26.3 per cent have 3 or more, 7.8 per cent 4 or more, 1.6 per cent 5 or more, and 0.5 per cent 6 or more persons per sleeping room. The average number of persons per sleeping room for all households studied is 2.21. Households the heads of which are of foreign birth show 2.28 persons per sleeping room as contrasted with 1.97 persons per sleeping room in households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father and 1.86 persons per sleeping room in the households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. The households the heads of which are foreign-born show a higher per cent having 2 or more, 3 or more, and 4 or more persons per sleeping room, than either the households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father or native-born of foreign father, the former showing a higher per cent of households having 2 or more persons and 4 or more persons per sleeping room than the latter, while the households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father show a higher per cent having 3 or more persons per sleeping room than do households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. The households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show a higher percentage than do the households the heads of which are foreign-born having 5 or more or 6 or more persons per sleeping room, while the households the heads of which are native whites born of native father show no per cent having this number of persons per sleeping room. Households the heads of which are native-born of German father show a higher per cent having 2 or more or 3 or more persons per sleeping room than do the households the heads of which are nativeborn of Irish father, the latter, however, show a small percentage having 4 or more, 5 or more, or 6 or more persons per sleeping room. Those households the heads of which are native-born of German father report none of their number with so many persons per sleeping room. Households the heads of which are Slovaks, Magyars, and South Italians, show the highest per cent having 5 or more persons per sleeping room and households the heads of which are Ŝlovaks and Magyars the highest percentage having 4 or more persons per sleeping room

The final table of the series, which is next presented, indicates the effect upon living arrangements of congestion within the households studied by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households regularly occupying all except each specified number of rooms to sleep in.

TABLE 307.-Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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From a study made of 384 households it is seen that the average number of rooms per household is 5.49, the average number of sleeping rooms per household being 2.64. Households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show a somewhat higher average number of rooms per household and of sleeping rooms per household than either households the heads of which are native whites born of native father or foreign-born. The latter, however, shows a higher average number of sleeping rooms per household than do households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. Households the heads of which are native-born of Irish father report a higher average number of rooms per household and of sleeping rooms per household than do households the heads. of which are native-born of German father. Of households the heads of which are foreign-born, the households the heads of which are Swedes and Welsh show the highest average number of rooms per household and also the highest average number of sleeping rooms per household, while households the heads of which are Slovaks show the lowest average number of rooms and of sleeping rooms per household. The totals further show that only 0.8 per cent of the total number of households studied sleep in all rooms, 13 per cent use all except 1 room to sleep in, and 21.9 per cent use all except 2 rooms. Households the heads of which are foreignborn show a higher percentage thus using all rooms, all except 1 room, and all except 2 rooms, than either households the heads of

which are native-born of foreign father or households the heads of which are native-born whites of native father. None of the two last mentioned use all rooms, or all except 1 room for sleeping purposes. Households the heads of which are Slovaks show the highest percentage using all rooms, and all except 1 room, for sleeping purposes, and households the heads of which are Magyars the highest per cent using all except 2 rooms. Households the heads of which are Swedes report no per cent sleeping in all roons, all except 1 room, and all except 2 rooms.

CHAPTER VI.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Age classification of households studied-[Text Tables 308 to 312 and General Tables 230 to 234].

LITERACY.

The general literacy of persons in the households studied in Community E is exhibited by the following table. The table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied who were able to read and the percentage who were able to both read and write: TABLE 308.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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It appears from the above table that, of the persons for whom information was secured, 80.8 per cent of the males and 78.3 per cent of the females can read only, and 79.4 per cent of the males and 77.4 per cent of the females can both read and write. The proportion of males and females who can read and read and write is much larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. It will be noted that all who were native-born of native father can read and write. Of the foreign-born, all of the Swedes and Welsh, both males and females, can read and read and write. With these exceptions, the proportions of persons, both males and females, who read

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