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CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households-Congestion-[Text Tables 296 to 307 and General Tables 218 to 229].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING.

The monthly rent payments of the households the heads of which are employed in Community E are chiefly significant in their bearing upon the standard of living, because of congestion within the households arising from the practice of crowding the apartments in order to reduce the per capita rent outlay. The first table presented in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent paid per month per apartment, per room, and per person.

TABLE 296.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The average rent per apartment of the 215 households studied in this locality is $10.13, while the average rent per room and per person is $2.07 and $1.76, respectively-those households the heads of which are foreign-born showing a slightly lower average rent per apartment, room, and person, while those households, the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, although showing a slightly lower average rent per room, report a much higher average rent per apartment and per person than the total of all households. Those

households the heads of which are native whites, born of native father, while showing an average rent per room only a few cents in excess of, show an average rent per apartment and per person largely in excess of, the averages shown in the total for all households. Among those households the heads of which are foreign-born, the South Italian show a slightly higher average rent per apartment than do the Welsh, a considerably higher average than do the Slovaks, and a much higher average rent per apartment than do the Magyar households. The Slovak households, on the other hand, report the highest average rent per room and per person, while the Welsh show the lowest average per room and the Magyar the lowest average rent per person. Among those households the heads of which are nativeborn of foreign father, it will be noted that, the Irish households show a considerably lower average rent per apartment and per room and a very much lower average rent per person than is shown for those households the heads of which are native whites born of native father.

The range in monthly rents for apartments is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment.

TABLE 297.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that the average rent per apartment in the 215 households studied is $10.13-those households the heads of which are foreign-born reporting an average of $9.51, as compared with $12.47 for those households, the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. As between the South Italian and Magyar households, among those households, the heads of which are foreign-born, it will be noted that the former pay a considerably higher average rent per month per apartment, than do the latter. Considering the specified rent paid by these households per month per apartment, it will be noted that only 2.3 per cent pay under $5, while 23.7, 43.3, and 79.5 per cent pay under $7.50, $10, and $12.50 per month per apartment, respectively. Identically the same proportion of those households the heads of which are foreign-born pay under $5, while

a slightly larger proportion pay under each of the other specified amounts than is shown in the total for all households, while those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father the proportion paying under $5 rent per month per apartment, is slightly above, the proportion paying under $7.50 considerably below, and the proportion paying under $10 and under $12.50 much below the proportions shown in the total for all households. Among those households the heads of which are foreign-born it will be noted that as between the South Italian and Magyar households none of the former as compared with 8 per cent of the latter pay under $5 rent per apartment; also a much smaller proportion of the former pay under $7.50 and under $12.50, and a very much smaller proportion pay under $10 per month per apartment, than do the latter.

The table next submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 298.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The average rent per room per month of the 215 households studied in this locality is $2.07, the households the heads of which are foreignborn and those the heads of which are native-born of foreign father each showing an average rent per room per month of $2.06. The South Italian and Magyar, among those households the heads of which are foreign-born, show each an average rent per room only a few cents below that shown for all households the heads of which are foreign-born. As regards the specified amount paid by the 215 households studied, it will be noted that no households pay under $1, while 38.1 and 88.8 per cent pay under $2 and under $3, respectively, the proportion paying $4 or over amounting to but 2.8 per cent. Households the heads of which are foreign-born show a proportion paying under $2, $3, and $4 rent per room per month, slightly below, while those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father, show proportions paying these specified amounts slightly above the proportion shown in the total for all households. In other words, it will be noted that those households the heads of which are foreign

born pay a higher average rent per room per month than do those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father.

Among those households the heads of which are foreign-born it will be noted that as between the South Italian and the Magyar households the former show a slightly larger proportion paying under $2 and a slightly smaller proportion paying under $3 and under $4 rent per room per month than do the latter.

The real situation relative to congestion is set forth in the following table, which indicates the extent of crowding within the households studied by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 299.-Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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In the 215 households studied the average rent per person is $1.76. In those households the heads of which are foreign-born the average rent is $1.61, as compared with $2.30 in those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father. In those households the heads of which are foreign-born, the South Italian and Magyar households each show an average rent per month per person below that shown for all households the heads of which are foreign-born. Of those households paying a specified rent per month per person only 7 per cent pay under $1, while 59.5, 80.9, and 91.2 per cent pay under $2, $3, and $4, respectively. Thus it will be seen that a much larger proportion pay between $1 and $2 than any other specified amount. Those households the heads of which are foreign-born show a slightly larger proportion paying each specified rent per month per person, while those households the heads of which are native-born of foreign father show a slightly smaller proportion paying under $1 and a considerably smaller proportion paying under each of the other specified amounts than is shown in the total for all households. Among those households the heads of which are foreign-born, neither the South Italian nor Magyar households pay as much as $4 rent per month per person-the former showing a slightly larger proportion paying under $2 and under $3 and a considerably smaller proportion paying under $1 per month per person than do the latter.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of the wives of employees in Community E in supplementing the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home has already been discussed. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which exhibits the number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

TABLE 300.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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It appears from the data presented in the above table that 27.3 per cent of the households for which information was secured keep boarders or lodgers. The proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers is much larger among the foreign-born than among the native-born of foreign father, while none of the households of persons native-born of native father keep boarders or lodgers. Among the foreign-born, of the races for which the percentages have been computed, the South Italians, Magyars, and Welsh, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

In the table next submitted the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households, and (2) on the number of households taking boarders or lodgers.

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