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CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-The immigrant and organized labor-/Text Tables 293 to 295 and General Table 217].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of employment offered, as well as the relative industriousness of the members of the several races employed in Community E, is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 293.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of 792 male employees who are 16 years of age or over and are employed away from home, 29.7 per cent worked the full year, 76.1 per cent worked nine months or over out of the past year, 96.7 per cent worked six months or over, and 99.9 per cent worked three months or over. The employees who are native-born of foreign father show 59.8 per cent who worked the full year. The employees who are native-born whites of native father show 53.9 per cent and the employees of foreign birth only 21.3 per cent who worked for this length of time. The native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage who worked nine months or over, the native-born whites of native

father and the foreign-born following in the order named. The nativeborn of foreign father show 99.1 per cent who worked six months or over, the native whites born of native father and the foreign-born following in somewhat similar proportions. Both the foreign-born and the native-born whites of native father show 100 per cent working three months or over, while the native-born of foreign father show 99.1 per cent who worked for this period of time. Of the native-born of foreign father, employees whose fathers were born in Sweden show the highest percentage who worked twelve months and nine months or over out of the past year. Of employees of foreign birth the Swedish show the highest per cent who worked for twelve months and nine months or over, while only 8.5 per cent of the South Italians worked the full twelve months and 62.2 per cent of the Magyars worked nine months or over. The Swedish and Polish employees show 100 per cent who worked six months or over as contrasted with only 93 per cent of the South Italians who were employed for the abovementioned time during the past year.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over and who were employed away from home:

TABLE 294.-Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The following table shows that of the females 16 years of age or over who are employed away from home 72.7 per cent worked twelve months, 92.7 per cent worked nine months or over, 98.2 per cent worked six months or over and three months or over. A considerably higher percentage of the native whites born of native father worked twelve months than did the native-born of foreign father, while the latter show a higher per cent who worked nine months or over than the former. Both the native whites born of native father and the native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent who worked six months or over.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the wage-earners of the several races were members of labor organizations is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males, in the households studied, who were 21 years of age or over and who were working for wages:

TABLE 295.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 669 males, included in the foregoing table, 167, or 25 per cent, are affiliated with trade unions. Of the foreign-born 27.1 per cent belong to trade unions, as compared with 19.2 per cent of the nativeborn of foreign father and 10.2 per cent of the native-born of native father. Of the foreign-born races showing a number large enough for computation, the proportion ranges from 35.6 per cent of the South Italians to 9.1 per cent of the Slovaks. Of those of native birth whose fathers are German 24 per cent are affiliated with trade unions.

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