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TABLE 288.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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☐ For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

This column includes 4 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."

c This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."

TABLE 289.—Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6. The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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a This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the total number of wives reporting in the above table, 29.3 per cent work or keep boarders or lodgers. Over 50 per cent of wives whose husbands earn under $400 a year either work or keep boarders or lodgers, while the proportion of those at work or keeping boarders or lodgers decreases as the earnings of the husband increase. No wives whose husbands are native-born of native father and a much smaller proportion of the wives whose husbands are native-born of foreign father than of the wives of foreign-born husbands, are at work or keep boarders or lodgers.

Among the different foreign-born races a larger proportion of wives whose husbands are South Italians and a smaller proportion of those whose husbands are Swedish in each specified group, are at work or keep boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The sources of family income are shown in detail in the following table. The table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 290.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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The foregoing table contains information from 368 families. It is seen that a very large proportion, or 94.6 per cent, have incomes from husband, 31.5 per cent from contributions of children, 28.5 per cent from boarders or lodgers, 12.2 per cent from other sources, while only 1.1 per cent have incomes from earnings of the wife. Comparing the families of the different nativity groups it is seen that all the families whose heads are native-born of native father have incomes from

husbands, and a somewhat less proportion of those whose heads are foreign-born or native-born of foreign father have incomes from the husband; but a much larger proportion of the families of the lastnamed nativity group have incomes from contributions of children. and from other sources than either of the other groups. A considerable proportion of the families whose heads are foreign-born have incomes from boarders or lodgers, while none the heads of which are native-born of native father and only a small proportion families whose heads are native-born of foreign father do have such incomes. Of the families whose heads are foreign-born, all except the Swedish show more than 90 per cent having incomes from husband, and only the Swedish, and South Italian have families with income from the wife, and the proportions are small. More than 50 per cent of the families whose heads are Swedish and Welsh have incomes from the contributions of children, while the other races show a very much. smaller proportion. A very much larger proportion of families with South Italian heads, and less than 10 per cent of those whose heads are Swedish have incomes from boarders or lodgers. The last-mentioned families show the largest and the South Italian families the smallest proportions having incomes from other sources.

In the following table, in which the sources of family income are again shown in detail, each source specified is exclusive of all other sources. In other words, the proportion of families appearing under each designated source have their entire income from that source: TABLE 291.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as "none."]

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Information is presented in the preceding table for 368 families, the heads of which are employed in anthracite coal mining. The earnings of the husband constitute the sole source of income of 42.1 per cent, while the incomes of 17.1 per cent receive their income from the husband and children; 20.4 per cent from husbands and boarders and lodgers; 16.8 per cent from sources or combinations of sources not specified, and less than 2 per cent receive incomes from any of the other specified sources. Of the different nativity groups the native-born of native father show a considerably higher proportion of families than the native-born of foreign father, and the latter in turn show a considerably higher proportion than the foreign-born receiving entire income from the husband. The native-born of foreign father show a slightly higher proportion than the nativeborn of native father, and the last-named group shows a higher proportion than the foreign-born where the children supplement the income of husband. The foreign-born is the only group showing families receiving incomes from husband and boarders and lodgers. The native-born of foreign father show the highest proportion having incomes from sources or combination of sources not before specified, followed by the foreign-born and native-born of native father in the order named.

Of the foreign-born races the Magyars show the largest proportion with the husband only contributing to the family income and the South Italians the smallest. On the other hand, the Swedish, closely followed by the Welsh, show the highest and the South Italians the lowest proportion where the husband and children constitute the sole source of income. The last-named race, with 51.8 per cent, shows by far the largest proportion of families whose income is derived from husband and boarders or lodgers, while no Swedish families report incomes from this source. A larger proportion of Swedish families. than those of any other race have incomes from sources or combination of sources not before specified, but all other races show more than 10 per cent of the families having incomes from this source.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY

INCOME.

The relative importance of the different sources of income of the families studied in the community may be seen from the table next presented, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 292.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is excluded which reports income as “none."]

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Of 368 families reporting 65.5 per cent of the yearly family incomes were from earnings of husbands, 23.1 per cent from contributions of children, 7.9 per cent from boarders or lodgers, and small proportions from wives and from sources not specified. Among the different nativity groups the native-born of native father show a considerably larger proportion of the yearly income as coming from the earnings of the husband than the foreign-born, who in turn show a higher proportion than the native-born of foreign father, while on the other hand the native-born of foreign father show a higher proportion of the yearly income of families coming from contributions of children than either of the other groups. The foreign-born show slightly more than 10 per cent of the family income as coming from boarders or lodgers, while the native-born of foreign father show slightly more than 1 per cent and the nativeborn of native father show none as coming from this source.

Of the foreign-born races, the South Italians, with practically 75 per cent of the income from the earnings of the husbands, show the highest from this source and the Swedes show the lowest. The contributions from children are considerably higher in the case of the Swedes than any other race and lower in the case of the South Italians, while a very much larger proportion of the total income of the Magyars is received from boarders and lodgers than any other race, no other race receiving as much as 10 per cent from this source. The proportion received from other sources is small in the case of each race

48296°-VOL 17-11-26

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