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Of 353 husbands reporting in the above table 98.6 per cent are at work. All the native-born of native father and native-born of foreign father and 98.2 per cent of the foreign-born husbands are reported at work. Among the different foreign-born races, all the Magyar husbands and more than 90 per cent of those of each of the other races are reported at work.

The range in annual earnings of the male heads of families studied is shown in the following table, by general nativity and race.

TABLE 283.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see Vol. II, p. 6.]

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Irish.

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Information secured from 348 individuals employed in anthracite coal mining shows that 26.7 per cent earn under $400 per year, and 60.6 per cent earn under $600, while slightly less than 20 per cent earn $800 or more, and 8 per cent earn $1,000 or over yearly. Comparing the different nativity groups it is seen that none of the nativeborn of native father earn under $400 per year while a considerable proportion of the foreign-born, or 31.7 per cent, and 14 per cent of the native-born of foreign father earn under this amount. The foreign-born show larger proportions earning under each specified amount than the native-born of native father who in turn show larger proportions earning under $800 and $1,000 than the nativeborn of foreign father. The Welsh and South Italians each report slightly more than 3 per cent earning under $200 per year, and slightly more than 50 per cent of the last-named race earn under

$400 yearly. The Swedes show a considerably higher earning power than any other race, while the Welsh follow, but not closely and in turn show considerably higher than the South Italians and Magyars.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of males 18 years of age or over, in the households studied.

TABLE 284.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

Number
working

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Number earning

Per cent earning

General nativity and race of individual.

for wages Average

and re- earnings. Under Under Under Under Under Under Under Under
porting
$200. $400. $600. $1,000. $200. $400. $600. $1,000.

amount.

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Of 751 males 18 years of age or over 3.5 per cent earn under $200 per year, 39.9 per cent under $400, 74.6 per cent under $600, and 95.7 per cent under $1,000. The average yearly earnings being $498. The male employees who are native-born of foreign father exhibit average yearly earnings of $678. The native-born whites of native father have average yearly earnings of $586, and the average yearly earnings of the foreign-born is $459. The foreign-born show a higher percentage earning under $200, under $400, under $600, and under $1,000, than either the native whites born of native father or the native-born of foreign father which follow in the order named. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father the Germans show the highest average yearly earnings, which is $788, as contrasted with only $547 which is the average yearly earnings of the Welsh.

The employees who are native-born of Swedish father show the highest percentage earning under $1,000, followed by those who are nativeborn of German and of Irish father in the order mentioned. The employees who are native-born of Irish father show the highest percentage earning under $600 followed by the employees who are nativeborn of German father and those who are native-born of Swedish father. Of the foreign-born employees the Swedish show the highest average yearly earnings which is $843, the Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Welsh show average yearly earnings of over $600, the Poles over $500, the Slovaks and South Italians over $400, and the Magyars only $398. The South Italians show the highest percentage earning under $200 and the Magyars the highest percentage earning under $400. The South Italians exhibit the highest percentage earning under $600 and under $1,000. The Swedish show the smallest percentage earning under $600 and under $1,000.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

TABLE 285.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The above table shows the average earnings of the 46 females for whom information was obtained in this locality to be $304the average earnings of the native-born of foreign father exceeding this amount by $3, while the average earnings of the native-born of native father, white, exceed this amount by $21. Because of the small number involved the possibility of comparing the various races earning under each specified amount, is precluded.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tables next presented the yearly income of the families studied, together with the several sources of family income and their relative importance, are considered. The table first submitted in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.

TABLE 286.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. One family is included which reports income as “none.”]

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Of 369 selected families, the greater proportion, or 55.6 per cent, have a total income of less than $750 per year, 29 per cent have $1,000 or over per year, and slightly more than 10 per cent have $1,500 or over. The proportions earning under $300 and under $500 yearly are small, being only 3.5 and 26.8 per cent, respectively. Smaller proportions of the native-born of native father than of the other nativity groups have a yearly income of less than $500, while the native-born of foreign father show smaller proportions having incomes under this amount than do the foreign-born. The nativeborn of foreign father show smaller proportions with yearly incomes under each specified amount above $500 than the native-born of native father, which group in turn shows smaller proportions under each amount than the foreign-born.

No families the heads of which are foreign-born Swedes have incomes under $500 per year, and the larger proportion of them have incomes of $1,000 or over per year, while more than 90 per cent of the families the heads of which are South Italian, 75.3 per cent of those whose heads are Magyars, and more than 50 per cent of those the heads of which are Welsh have incomes less than this amount. The families the heads of which are South Italian and Swedish show the largest and the smallest proportions, respectively, earning under each specified amount.

WIVES AT WORK.

The tendency on the part of the wives of employees to engage in occupations outside the home in order to supplement the earnings of their husbands is indicated by the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the proportion of wives at work:

TABLE 287.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of 364 wives reporting in the above table only a small proportion, or 1.1 per cent, are at work. Only wives in households the heads of which are foreign-born are reported as being at work, the proportion being only 1.4 per cent. As regards the wives of husbands of differ ent foreign-born races who are at work only two races report in sufficient numbers to be computed, and in each instance the proportion is but slightly more than 3 per cent.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

It has been seen that only a very small proportion of the wives in the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of the wives supplements the earnings of the heads by keeping boarders or lodgers. The extent to which this is done is indicated by the following tables, which show, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers.

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