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as factory operatives. The Welsh show the largest proportion in hand trades, and the Slovaks the smallest. Considerably more than 50 per cent of all races except the Welsh were engaged in some form of agriculture, while only 8 per cent of the members of this race were so employed.

In the following table the industrial conditions before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming is shown by race of individual.

TABLE 277.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Race of individual.

Number reporting

complete Without Working Working Without Working Working
data. occupa-
for without оссира-
for without
tion. wages. wages.
tion. wages. wages.

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From the above table it will be noted that of the 287 females for whom information was obtained, only 13.6 per cent worked for wages before coming to the United States and 17.1 per cent worked without wages, the remaining 69.3 per cent having been without occupation abroad. With the exception of 4.2 per cent working for wages, the Welsh were without occupation before coming to the United States. The next largest proportion, or 81.1 per cent, without occupation is shown by the South Italians. This, it will be noted, slightly exceeds the proportion of Magyars and very largely exceeds that of the Swedes, who show but 44.4 per cent. On the other hand, the very large proportion of Swedes, or 33.3 per cent, is in striking contrast to the proportions of the other races who worked for wages abroad. The Swedes also show the largest proportion working without wages, a proportion slightly in excess of that shown by the Magyars and considerably in excess of that shown by the South Italians.

The table next submitted shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival,

Italian, South..

Magyar..

Swedish.

Welsh..

Total..

TABLE 278.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign.

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It appears from the above table that 13.6 per cent of the foreignborn females for whom information was secured worked abroad for wages and that 17.1 per cent worked without wages as farm laborers. The proportion of females who were in domestic service is 7.7 per cent, while 3.8 per cent were farm laborers working for wages. Only a very small proportion of all females were factory operatives or in the hand trades. The proportion of females who were in domestic service or who worked as farm laborers, either with or without wages, is much larger for the Swedes than for the females for any other race.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next presented the general occupation of males 16 years of age or over in the households studied is shown according to general nativity and race of individual.

Total.

TABLE 279.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From the above table it appears that 61.9 per cent of the males 16 years of age or over from whom information was secured are employed in coal mining, that 22.3 per cent are employed in manufacturing pursuits, that 10.2 per cent are employed in transportation, and that only a very small proportion are otherwise employed or are at home or at school. The proportion of males employed in coal mining is largest for the foreign-born and slightly larger for the native-born of native father than for the native-born of foreign father; the proportion of males employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits is slightly larger for the native-born of native father than for the native-born of foreign father and is smallest for the foreign-born; and the proportion of males employed in transportation is larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of native father and larger for the latter than for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born the South Italians, Welsh, and Magyars, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovaks the smallest proportion of males employed in coal mining, and the Slovaks, Swedes, and Poles, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Magyars and South Italians the smallest proportion of males employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. The proportion of males employed in transportation is largest for the Slovaks, Magyars, and Poles in the order mentioned.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The present industrial condition of members of the households studied is exhibited by the two following tables, the first of which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of females 16 years of age or over in the households studied: TABLE 280.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the females 16 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 85.2 per cent are at home, 6.6 per cent are in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 4.1 per cent are in employments not specified, 3.8 per cent are at school, and only 0.4 per cent are in domestic service. The proportion of females at home is largest for the foreignborn, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for native-born of native father. None of the foreign-born and a considerably larger proportion of the native-born of native father than of the native-born of foreign father are in employments not specified, and a much larger proportion of the native-born of native father and of the native-born of foreign father than of the foreignborn are employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. All of the Slovak females, and over 95 per cent of the females of every other foreign race for which the percentages are given, are at home. The proportion of females employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits is largest for the South Italians, Magyars, and Swedes.

OCCUPATIONS OF FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS COMPARED.

The table following makes possible a comparison of the occupations of the first and second generations. It shows, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual, the per cent of males 16 years of age or over, in the households studied, engaged in coal mining.

TABLE 281.-Per cent of males 16 years of age or over engaged in coal mining, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males born in the United States and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]

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It appears from the above table that a considerably larger proportion of the males of Swedish and Welsh parentage for whom information was secured, who were born abroad, than of those who were born in the United States, are employed in coal mining. The proportion of native whites born of native father (37.5) who are employed in coal mining is much larger than the proportion of native males born of Swedish father and nearly as large as the proportion of foreign males born of Welsh (52.4) father who are so employed.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The extent to which the husbands in the families studied were regularly employed, together with their average annual earnings, is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race. TABLE 282.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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