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show 2.4 per cent as compared with proportions of the English, Irish, and Germans ranging from 75.6 to 68.6 per cent.

An insight into the racial movements to Community E during recent and past years may also be had from the table below, which shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons, in the households studied, who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 273.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that 42 per cent of the foreignborn persons for whom information was secured have been in the United States under five years, that 67.1 per cent have been here under ten years, and that 83.9 per cent have been here under twenty years. The proportion of persons who have been here under five years is largest for the South Italians, Poles, and Magyars, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Welsh and Lithuanians. The South Italians, Magyars, and Poles, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Welsh the smallest proportion of persons who have been in the United States under ten years, and the South Italians, Magyars, and Slovaks, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Welsh and Swedes the smallest proportion of persons who have been here under twenty years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The following table shows the number and per cent of male employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 274.-Male employees of each race for whom information was secured.

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Of the 1,507 male employees of this industry, for whom information was obtained, 34.8 per cent are foreign-born, 35.2 per cent nativeborn of foreign father, and 29.8 per cent are native-born of native father, white, while the native-born of native father, negro, constitute the remaining proportion of less than 1 per cent.

Of the 26 foreign-born races shown in the above table only 11 constitute more than 1 per cent each of all employees for whom information was obtained. Of these, the Germans constitute the largest proportion, or 6.8 per cent, while the Welsh constitute the smallest proportion, or 1.3 per cent.

Among the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Germany constitute the largest proportion, or 15 per cent of all employees. Those whose fathers were born in Ireland constitute the next largest proportion, or 8.6 per cent, a proportion slightly in excess of the proportion shown by those whose fathers were born in England, Wales or Scotland-those whose fathers were born in other countries constituting each less than 0.5 per cent of all employees concerning whom information was obtained.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of the immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Occupations of first and second generation compared-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studiedAnnual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied— Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 275 to 292 and General Tables 208 to 217.]

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF THE IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering into a discussion of the economic status in this country of employees and members of their households in Community E, the industrial condition and principal occupation of the foreign-born workers and members of their households while abroad are set forth. The first table submitted in this connection, which immediately follows, shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 275.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 562 males in this locality, concerning whom information was obtained, the largest proportion, or 55.7 per cent, worked for wages before coming to the United States, 29.2 per cent for profit, and 14.4 per cent worked without wages, while less than 1 per cent were without occupation. Among those working for wages, the Welsh, with

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96 per cent, show the largest proportion and the Poles, with 45 per cent, show the smallest proportion. Following the Welsh are the Swedes who show a considerably larger proportion than the Slovaks and a much larger proportion than the Magyars or the South Italians. The Welsh, on the other hand, report the smallest proportion, or 4 per cent, who worked without wages abroad, while the Poles, with 25 per cent, show a slightly larger proportion than do the Slovaks or Magyars and a considerably larger proportion than do the South Italians or the Swedes. No Welsh worked for profit, while the South Italians, with 41.9 per cent, show a considerably larger proportion than the Poles or the Magyars and a much larger proportion than the Slovaks or Swedes-the last named reporting but 6.5 per cent. No Magyars, Slovaks, or Welsh and only very small proportions of the other races were without occupation abroad.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming.

TABLE 276.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 562 foreign-born males employed in anthracite coal mining a larger proportion were employed as farm laborers for wages than any other occupation, and considerably more than 50 per cent, or 65.8 per cent, were on farms either as farm laborers for wages, or without, or as farmers for themselves; 8.4 per cent were employed in mining; 8.9 per cent were employed in hand trades, while 11.4 per cent were working for wages in other occupations. Among the different races reporting more than 50 per cent of the Slovaks and Swedes were employed as farm laborers for wages, while a very low proportion, or 4 per cent, of the Welsh, were engaged in that occupation. Of the Welsh, however, 64 per cent were employed in mining and less than 10 per cent of all other races except the South Italian were engaged in that occupation. The proportions who were engaged in general labor are small, while the Poles and Swedes show considerably higher proportions than the other races who were employed

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