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CHAPTER VIII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Status of children in the households studied-CitizenshipAbility to speak English-[Text Tables 260 to 266 and General Tables 199 to 204].

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The accumulation of property is not only an indication of thrift on the part of the owner, but, where the owner is a person of foreign birth, it also exhibits a tendency toward permanent settlement in the United States. In this connection, the following table is submitted, showing the number and percentage of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 260.-Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of the total 733 households 7.1 per cent own their homes. The native-born of foreign father own their homes to a much greater extent than the foreign-born. There is, however, much variation in the extent to which ownership of homes prevails among the specified races. Of the Irish households, 20.6 per cent own their homes. None of the South Italians or Poles have acquired their own homes. A greater proportion of Irish of the second generation own their homes than of those born abroad.

STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented is instructive as indicating the tendency on the part of children in the families studied to attend school or begin work when the working age is reached. The table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 261.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that 6.9 per cent of children who are 6 and under 16 years of age are at home, 82.5 per cent are at school, and 10.5 per cent are at work. Foreign-born show a slightly higher percentage than native-born of foreign father, while native-born of native father show few children at home. Native-born of native father show a considerably higher percentage of children at school than native-born of foreign father or foreign-born, which follow in the order named. The proportion of foreign-born at work is large

when contrasted with the proportion of native-born of native father and native-born of foreign father. Of the native-born of foreign father, Ruthenians show a considerably higher percentage of children at home than Slovaks, this order being reversed in the column showing children at work. The proportions of children of these races at school are almost the same. The proportion of female children at home and at work is slightly larger than that of males, the latter showing the highest percentage at school.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child, the number and percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work:

TABLE 262.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by race of father and by birthplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more children born abroad. The native-born of native father shown for comparative purposes.]

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The above table shows that all races except the German show a higher percentage of children who were born in the United States, at school, than is the case with those born abroad. Germans alone show a considerably higher percentage of children born abroad, who are at school, than is true of those born in the United States; also the percentage of children born abroad who are at work is considerably higher than the percentage of those born in the United States who are working, the Germans being the only exception to this rule. This race shows 5.6 per cent of children who were born in the United States, at work, as contrasted with no children at work who were born abroad. All of the races, except the German, also show the highest percentage of children at home who were born abroad than the percentage of those who were born in the United States. Two races, the foreign-born German and the Hebrews born in the United States, show a higher percentage of children at school than native-born of native father.

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which the foreign-born males in the households studied have acquired or manifested an interest in attaining citizenship is exhibited by the table next presented. It shows, by race,

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the present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country.

TABLE 263.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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The extent to which foreign-born persons of non-English-speaking races, in the households studied, are able to speak English is set forth in the following series of tables. The first table presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English.

TABLE 264.-Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the total number of persons who are at least 6 years of age, 56.3 per cent speak English. Of the native-born of foreign father, however, 96.5 per cent speak English, while of the foreign-born the proportion is only 47.2 per cent. There is, however, considerable difference in the proportion of the specified races who speak English. The greater proportion of the Germans, Hebrews, North Italians and Slovaks have that ability. Of the Polish, on the other hand, only 18.3 per cent speak English, the smallest proportion shown by any race. Uniformly a greater proportion of males speak English than of the females of the corresponding race or class. The most marked difference in the ability of the two sexes to speak English is among the North Italians and Polish. The South Italians show somewhat similar proportions of males and females who speak English.

The following table makes possible a comparison of the relative proportion of the younger and older immigrants able to speak English. The table shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English. TABLE 265.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the group of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States, 84.6 per cent speak English; of the group who were 14 or over, 38.4 speak English. Similarly, every race shows a greater proportion speaking English of those who were under 14 at time of coming than of those who were 14 or over. The South Italians show the most marked effect of age at time of coming on the extent to which English is spoken; of the group who were under 14, 78.9 speak English; of the group who were 14 or over, 15.8 per cent speak English.

The progress made by persons of non-English-speaking races in acquiring ability to speak English after stated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the table following, which shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English.

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