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CHAPTER VII.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Age classification of households studied-[Text Tables 253 to 259 and General Tables 194 to 198].

LITERACY.

The general literacy of the persons in the households studie ind Community D is exhibited by the following table. This table shows, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of persons 10 years of age or over, in the households studied, who were able to read and the percentage who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 253.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the

Of the total number of persons 10 years of age or over 84.9 per cent read and a slightly smaller proportion read and write. native-born of native father 100 per cent read and write; of the native-born of foreign father 99.2 per cent read and write.

Of the

foreign-born, however, only 80.1 per cent read and write. There is a marked variation in the extent to which literacy is prevalent among the specified races of foreign-born. Ability to read and to read and write is most general among the English, Germans, Irish, North Italians, and Magyars. Moreover, the greater part of every other specified race, except the South Italian, is literate. Of the South Italians, however, only 35.1 per cent can read and write. Both the native-born of foreign father and the foreign-born show a greater proportion of males literate than of females. This is likewise characteristic with one exception of every specified race. The Hebrews, South Italians, Polish, and Ruthenians show the greatest variation in the literacy of the sexes.

The degree of literacy prevailing among persons of foreign birth, in the households studied, after designated periods of residence in this country may be understood from the table next presented. This table shows, by race of individual and by years in the United States, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the percentage who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 254.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 2,019 individuals included in the preceding table, it is seen that the proportion with ability to read increases gradually with the period of residence. The proportion who have been in the United States each specified number of years and who have ability both to read and to write is slightly lower than the proportion who read only. Of those of each race with a period of residence under five years the English and German show 100 per cent each and the South Italians 34 per cent who read, while the same proportion of English_and German both read and write, as compared with 32.7 per cent of the South Italians. In addition to the South Italians the Polish and Ruthenians each show a small proportion in this group who read but

do not write. As regards those with a period of residence of from to five nine years as well as ten years or over, approximately the same relative positions are maintained by the several races.

The literacy of foreign-born persons in the households studied, according to age at time of coming to the United States, is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by race of individual and by age at time of arrival in this country, the percentage of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were able to read and the per cent who were able to both read and write.

TABLE 255.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the groups of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who were under 14 at time of coming to the United States, 93.7 per cent read; of the group who were 14 or over at time of coming, 79.3 per cent read. Similarly a larger proportion in the under 14 group read and write than in the group 14 or over. Furthermore, among every specified race literacy is more prevalent among those who were under 14 at time of coming to this country than among those who were 14 or over. Age at time of coming has the most marked effect upon the degree to which literacy is prevalent among the South Italians and Polish.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next submitted shows, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in the households studied, in each conjugal condition.

TABLE 256.-Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the total number of persons 20 years of age or over, 75.6 per cent are married, 19.1 per cent single, and 5.3 per cent widowed. In every age group the greater proportion of persons are married, but the proportion of persons of from 20 to 29 years of age who are married is considerably smaller than the proportion in any other group. Moreover, the native-born of foreign father in every age group show a larger proportion single than the foreign-born, the difference being most marked in the group 20 to 29 years of age.

In the latter age group a considerably larger proportion of females are married than of males. In the age groups 30 to 44 and 45 or over, a predominating proportion of males are married. The females, however, in every group show a larger proportion widowed than the males, the difference being most marked in the group of persons 45 years of

age or over.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of persons in the household studied within each age group.

TABLE 257.—Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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