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department or agency is authorized to waive compliance with such laws to such extent and in such manner and upon such terms as he may prescribe, either upon his own initiative or upon the written recommendation of the head of any other Government agency, whenever he deems that such action is necessary in the interest of national defense.

“SECTION 2. The authority granted by this Act shall terminate at such time as the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate." Documentation of vessels; waiver of compliance; coastwise

trade; inspection; reconditioning of vessels; effective period; definition

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50 U.S.C. 198

(a) Any vessel not documented under the laws of the United States, acquired by or made available to the Secretary of Commerce under sections 196–198 of this title, or otherwise, may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury be documented as a vessel of the United States under such rules and regulations or orders, and with such limitations, as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe or issue as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of sections 196–198 of this title, and in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, engage in the coastwise trade when so documented. Any document issued to a vessel under the provisions of this subsection shall be surrendered at any time that such surrender may be ordered by the Secretary of the Treasury. No vessel, the surrender of the documents of which has been so ordered, shall, after the effective date of such order, have the status of a vessel of the United States unless documented anew.

(b) The President may, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, by rules and regulations or orders, waive compliance with any provision of law relating to masters, officers, members of the crew, or crew accommodations on any vessel documented under authority of this section to such extent and upon such terms as he finds necessary because of the lack of physical facilities on such vessels, and because of the need to employ aliens for their operation. No vessel shall cease to enjoy the benefits and privileges of a vessel of the United States by reason of the employment of any person in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

(c) Any vessel while documented under the provisions of this section, when chartered under sections 196–198 of this title by the Secretary of Commerce to Government agencies or departments or to private operators, may engage in the coast wise trade under permits issued by the Secretary of Commerce, who is authorized to issue permits for such purpose pursuant to such rules and regulations as he may prescribe. The Secretary of Commerce is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of this section. The second paragraph of section 808 of title 46, shall not apply with respect to vessels chartered to Government agencies or departments or to private operators or otherwise used or disposed of under sections 196–198 of this title. Existing laws covering the inspection of steam vessels are made applicable to vessels documented under this section only to such extent and upon such conditions as may be required by regulations of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating: Provided, That in determining to what extent those laws should be made applicable, due consideration shall be given to the primary purpose of transporting commodities essential to the national defense.

(d) The Secretary of Commerce without regard to the provisions of section 5 of title 41 may repair, reconstruct, or recondition any vessels to be utilized under sections 196–198 of this title. The Secretary of Commerce and any other Government department or agency by which any vessel is acquired or chartered, or to which any vessel is transferred or made available under sections 196-198 of this title may, with the aid of any funds available and without regard to the provisions of said şection 5 of title 41, repair, reconstruct, or recondition any such vessels to meet the needs of the services intended, or provide facilities for such repair, reconstruction, or reconditioning. The Secretary of Commerce may operate or charter for operation any vessel to be utilized under sections 196–198 of this title to private operators, citizens of the United States, or to any department or agency of the United States Government, without regard to the provisions of sections 1191–1204 of title 46, and any department or agency of the United States Government is authorized to enter into such charters.

(e) In case of any voyage of a vessel documented under the provisions of this section begun before the date of termination of an effective period of section 196 of this title, but is completed after such date, the provisions of this section shall continue in effect with respect to such vessel until such voyage is completed.

(f) When used in sections 196–198 of this title, the term “documented" means “registered", "enrolled and licensed", or "licensed”. (Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, $ 3,68 Stat. 675.) Licenses to officers of vessels of the United States; exemption

from draft; pay and pension 46 U.S.C. 225

No master, mate, pilot, or engineer of steam vessels licensed under Sections 214, 224, 226, 228, 229, and 230 of this title shall be liable to draft in time of war, except for the performance of duties such as required by his license; and while performing such duties in the service of the United States every such master, mate, pilot, or engineer shall be entitled to the highest rate of wages paid in the merchant marine of the United States for similar services; and, if killed or wounded while performing such duties under the United States, they, or their heirs, or their legal representatives, shall be entitled to all privileges accorded to soldiers and sailors serving in the Army or Navy under the pension laws of the United States.

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Membership of officer in United States Naval Reserve 46 U.S.C. 1132(g)

All of the deck and engineer officers employed on vessels on which an operating-differential subsidy is paid under authority of subchapter VI of this chapter, or employed on the vessels of the Department of Commerce after one year after June 29, 1936 shall, if eligible, be members of the United States Naval Reserve. Complement of officers and crew of vessels; penalties 46 U.S.C. 222 (R.S. 4463)

No vessel of the United States subject to the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes or to the inspection laws of the United States shall be navigated unless she shall have in her service and on board such complement of licensed officers and crew, including certificated lifeboatmen, separately stated, as may, in the judgment of the Coast Guard, be necessary for her safe navigation. The Coast Guard shall make in the certificate of inspection of the vessel an entry of such complement of officers and crew including certificated lifeboatmen, separately stated, which may be changed from time to time by indorsement of such certificate by the Coast Guard by reason of change of conditions or employment. Such entry or indorsement shall be subject to a right of appeal, under regulations to be made by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, who shall have the power to revise, set aside, or affirm the said determination.

If any such vessel is deprived of the services of any number of the crew including certificated lifeboatmen, separately stated, without the consent, fault, or collusion of the master, owner, or any person interested in the vessel, the vessel may proceed on her voyage if, in the judgment of the master, she is sufficiently manned for such voyage: Provided, That the master shall ship, if obtainable, a number equal to the number of those whose services he has been deprived of by desertion or casualty, who must be of the same grade or of a higher rating with those whose places they fill. If the master shall fail to explain in writing the cause of such deficiency in the crew including certificated lifeboatmen, separately stated, to the Coast Guard within twelve hours of the time of the arrival of the vessel at her destination, he shall be liable to a penalty of $50. If the vessel shall not be manned as provided in this section, the owner shall be liable to a penalty of $100, or in case of an insufficient number of licensed officers to a penalty of $500. Minimum number of officers 46 U.S.C. 223

That the Coast Guard shall make an entry in the certificate of inspection of every ocean and coast wise seagoing merchant vessel of the United States propelled by machinery, and every ocean-going vessel carrying passengers, the minimum number of licensed deck officers required for her sa fe navigation according to the following scale:

That no such vessel shall be navigated unless she shall have on board and in her service one duly licensed master.

Every such vessel of one thousand gross tons and over, propelled by machinery, shall have in her service and on board three licensed mates, who shall stand in three watches while such vessel is being navigated, unless such vessel is engaged in a run of less than four hundred miles from the port of departure to the port of final destination, then such vessel shall have two licensed mates; and every vessel of two hundred gross tons and less than one thousand gross tons, propelled by machinery, shall have two licensed mates.

Every such vessel of one hundred gross tons and under two hundred gross tons, propelled by machinery, shall have on board and in her service one licensed mate; but if such vessel is engaged in a trade in which the time required to make the passage from the port of departure to the port of destination exceeds twenty-four hours, then such vessel shall have two licensed mates.

Nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the Coast Guard from increasing the number of licensed officers on any vessel subject to the inspection laws of the United States, if, in its judgment, such vessel is not sufficiently manned for her safe navigation: Provided, That this section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels, yachts, or motor boats as defined in the act of June 9, 1910, ch. 268, 36 Stat. 462 or to wrecking vessels. Removal of captain by owners 46 U.S.C. 227 (R.S. 4250)

Any person or body corporate having more than one-half ownership of any vessel shall have the same power to remove a master, who is also part owner of such vessel, as such majority owners have to remove a master not an owner. This section shall not apply where there is a valid written agreement subsisting, by virtue of which such master would be entitled to possession. State regulations as to licenses of pilots of steam vessels and

pilot charges 46 U.S.C. 215 (R.S. 4444)

No State or municipal government shall impose upon pilots of steam vessels any obligation to procure a State or other license in addition to that issued by the United States, or any other regulation which will impede such pilots in the performance of the duties required by title 52 of the Revised Statūtes; nor shall any pilot charges be levied by any such authority upon any steamer piloted as provided by title 52 of the Revised Statutes; and in no case shall the fees charged for the pilotage of any steam vessel exceed the customary or legally established rates in the State where the same is performed. Nothing in title 52 of the Revised Statutes shall be construed to annul or affect any regulation established by the laws of any State, requiring vessels entering or leaving a port in any such Štate, other than coastwise steam vessels, to take a pilot duly licensed or authorized by the laws of such State, or of a State situate upon the waters of such State.

REGULATION OF GREAT LAKES PILOTS

AND PILOTAGE Definitions 46 U.S.C. 216

As used in this chapter:

(a) “Great Lakes” means Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, their connecting and tributary waters, the Saint Lawrence River as far east as Saint Regis, and adjacent port areas.

(b) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Commerce.

c) “United States registered pilot" means a person, other than a member of the regular complement of a vessel, who holds an unlimited master's license authorizing navigation on the Great Lakes and suitably endorsed for pilotage on routes specified therein, issued by the head of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating under regulations issued by him, and is registered by the Secretary as provided in section 216b of this title.

(d) “Canadian registered pilot" means a person, other than a member of the regular complement of a vessel, who holds a master's certificate or equivalent license authorizing navigation on the Great Lakes and pilotage on routes specified therein, issued by the appropriate agency of Canada, and is registered by a designated agency of Canada on substantially the same basis as registration by the Secretary under the provisions of section 216b of this title.

(e) "other officer" means the master or any other member of the regular complement of the vessel concerned who is qualified for the navigation of the Great Lakes waters described in section 216a (b) of this title and who is either licensed by the head of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating under regulations issued by him or certificated by an appropriated agency of Canada.

(f) “Foreign vessels” means all foreign merchant vessels except Canadian vessels whose operations are exclusively upon the Great Lakes or between ports in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, or whose operations while predominantly as aforesaid fail of being exclusively so only because of an occasional voyage to a port or ports in the maritime provinces of Canada in the Canadian coastal trade. Pilot requirement 46 U.S.C. 216a

(a) The President shall designate and by proclamation announce those United States waters of the Great Lakes in which registered vessels of the United States and foreign vessels shall be required to have in their service a United States registered pilot or a Canadian registered pilot for the waters concerned, who shall, subject to the customary authority of the master, direct the navigation of the vessel in those waters. These designations shall be made with due regard to the public interest, the effective utilization of navigable waters, marine safety, and the foreign relations of the United States.

(b) In those United States waters of the Great Lakes which are not designated by the President in accordance with subsection (a)

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