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Exhibition of licenses
46 U.S.C. 232 (R.S. 4446)

Every master, mate, engineer, and pilot who shall receive a license shall, when employed upon any vessel, within forty-eight hours after going on duty, place his certificate of license, which shall be framed under glass, in some conspicuous place in such vessel, where it can be seen by passengers and others at all times: Provided, That in case of emergency such officer may be transferred to another vessel of the same owners for a period not exceeding forty-eight hours without the transfer of his license to such other vessel; and for every neglect to comply with this provision by any such master, mate, engineer, or pilot he shall be subject to a fine of $100, or to the revocation of his license. Revocation or suspension of officer's license for refusal to serve 46 U.S.C. 240 (R.S. 4449)

If any licensed officer shall, to the hindrance of commerce, wrongfully or unreasonably refuse to perform his official duties after having signed articles or while employed on any vessel as authorized by the terms of his certificate of license, or if any pilot or engineer shall refuse to admit into the pilot house or engine room any person whom the master or owner of the vessel may desire to place there for the purpose of learning the profession, his license shall be revoked or suspended upon the same proceedings as are provided in other cases of revocation or suspension of such license. Licenses of captains 46 U.S.C. 226 (R.S. 4439)

Whenever any person applies to be licensed as master of any steam vessel, or of a sail vessel of over seven hundred tons, the Coast Guard shall make diligent inquiry as to his character, and shall carefully examine the applicant as well as the proofs which he presents in support of his claim, and if it is satisfied that his capacity, experience, habits of life, and character are such as warrant the belief that he can safely be intrusted with the duties and responsibilities of the station for which he makes application, it shall grant him a license authorizing him to discharge such duties on any such vessel for the term of five years; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of bad conduct, intemperate habits, incapacity, inattention to his duties, or the willful violation of any provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes applicable to him. Licenses of mates 46 U.S.C. 228 (R.S. 4440)

Whenever any person applies for authority to be employed as chief mate of ocean or coastwise steam vessels or of sail vessels of over seven hundred tons, or as second or third mate of ocean or coastwise steam vessels, who shall have charge of a watch, or whenever any person applies for authority to be employed as mate of river steamers, the Coast Guard shall require satisfactory evidence of the knowledge, experience, and skill of the applicant in lading cargo and in handling and stowage of freight, and if for license as chief mate on ocean or coastwise steamers, or of sail vessels of over seven hundred tons, or as second or third mate of ocean or coastwise steamers, who shall have charge of a watch, shall also examine him as to his knowledge and ability in navigation and managing such vessels and all other duties pertaining to his station, and if satisfied of his qualifications and good character it shall grant him a license authorizing him to perform such duties for the term of five years upon the waters upon which he is found qualified to act; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of bad conduct, intemperate habits, unskillfulness, or want of knowledge of the duties of his station or the willful violation of any provision of title 52 of the Revised Statutes. Licenses of engineers 46 U.S.C. 229 (R.S. 4441)

Whenever any person applies for authority to perform the duties of engineer of any steam vessel, the Coast Guard shall examine the applicant as to his knowledge of steam machinery and his experience as an engineer, and also the proofs which he produces in support of his claim; and if, upon full consideration, it is satisfied that his character, habits of life, knowledge, and experience in the duties of an engineer are all such as to authorize the belief that he is a suitable and safe person to be intrusted with the powers and duties of such a station, it shall grant him a license, authorizing him to be employed in such duties for the term of five years, in which it shall assign him to the appropriate class of engineers; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory proof of negligence, unskillfulness, intemperance, or the willful violation of any provision of title 52 of the Revised Statutes. Whenever complaint is made against any engineer holding a license authorizing him to take charge of the boilers and machinery of any steamer, that he has, through negligence or want of skill, permitted the boilers in his charge to burn or otherwise become in bad condition, or that he has not kept his engine and machinery in good working order, it shall be the duty of the Coast Guard, upon satisfactory proof of such negligence or want of skill, to revoke the license of such engineer and assign him to a lower grade or class of engineers, if it finds him fitted therefor. Licenses of pilots of steam vessels 46 U.S.C. 214 (R.S. 4442)

Whenever any person claiming to be a skillful pilot of steam vessels offers himself for a license, the Coast Guard shall make diligent inquiry as to his character and merits, and if satisfied from personal examination of the applicant, with the proof that he offers that he possesses the requisite knowledge and skill, and is trustworthy and faithful, it shall grant him a license for the term of five years to pilot any such vessel within the limits prescribed in the license; but such license shall be suspended or revoked upon satisfactory evidence of negligence, unskillfulness, inattention to the duties of his station, or intemperance, or the willful violation of any provision of title 52 of the Revised Statutes. Licenses of captains or mates as pilots 46 U.S.C. 230 (R.S. 4443)

Where the master or mate is also pilot of the vessel, he shall not be required to hold two licenses to perform such duties, but the license issued shall state on its face that he is authorized to act in such double capacity. Vessels of the United States and officers defined; officers to be

citizens 46 U.S.C. 221 (R.S. 4131)

Vessels registered pursuant to law and no others, except such as shall be duly qualified according to law for carrying on the coasting or fishing trade, shall be deemed vessels of the United States, and entitled to the benefits and privileges appertaining to such vessels; but no such vessel shall enjoy such benefits and privileges longer than it shall continue to be wholly owned by a citizen or citizens of the United States or a corporation created under the laws of any of the States thereof, and be commanded by a citizen of the United States. And all the officers of vessels of the United States who shall have charge of a watch, including pilots, shall in all cases be citizens of the United States. The word "officers" shall include the chief engineer and each assistant engineer in charge of a watch on vessels propelled wholly or in part by steam; and no person shall be qualified to hold a license as a commander or watch officer of a merchant vessel of the United States who is not a native-born citizen, or whose naturalization as a citizen shall not have been fully completed. 46 U.S.C. 672a (a)

From and after June 25, 1936, all licensed officers and pilots of vessels of the United States shall be citizens of the United States, native-born, or completely naturalized. 46 U.S.C. 672a(d)

The owner, agent, or officer of any such vessel, who shall employ any person in violation of the provisions of this section, shall be subject to a penalty of $500 for each offense. 46 U.S.C. 1132(a)

All licensed officers of vessels documented under the laws of the United States, as now required by law, shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized; and upon each departure from the United States of a cargo vessel in respect of which a construction or operating subsidy has been granted all of the crew (crew including all employees of the ship) shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized. 46 U.S.C. 1132(d)

If any such vessel (as above defined), while on a foreign voyage is for any reason deprived of the services of any employee below the grade of master, his place or a vacancy caused by the promotion of another to his place may be supplied by a person other than defined in paragraphs (a) and (b), until the first return of such vessel to a port in the United States. 46 U.S.C. 1132(e)

The owner, agent, or officer of any such vessel who knowingly employs any person in violation of the provisions of this act shali, upon conviction thereof, be fined $50 for each person so employed. Replacement of licensed officer on foreign voyage 46 U.S.C. 221 (R.S. 4131)

In cases where on a foreign voyage, or on a voyage from an Atlantic to a Pacific port of the United States, any such vessel is for any reason deprived of the services of an officer below the grade of master, his place, or a vacancy caused by the promotion of another officer to such place, may be supplied by a person not a citizen of the United States until the first return of such vessel to its home port; and such vessel shall not be liable to any penalty or penal tax for such employment of an alien officer. Suspension of provisions as to watch officers 46 U.S.C. 236

The President of the United States is authorized, whenever in his discretion the needs of foreign commerce may require, to suspend by order, so far and for such length of time as he may deem desirable, the provisions of law prescribing that all the watch officers of vessels of the United States registered for foreign trade shall be citizens of the United States. Suspension of section during emergency 46 U.S.C. 1132(h)

During a national emergency as proclaimed by the President he may, in his discretion, suspend any or all of the provisions of this section. Licenses to, and ownership of boats by, Indians 46 U.S.C. 237

All Indians of the Tsimpsean or Haida tribe of the full or mixed blood who emigrated from British Columbia and settled at Metlakahtla on Annette Island, in southeastern Alaska, in the year 1887 and subsequent years, as well as all descendants of such Indians, and all other Indians who have since become and remained bona fide residents of said Metlakahtla, Alaska, shall, if otherwise qualified, be entitled to receive and obtain licenses as masters, pilots, and engineers, as the case may be, of any and all steamboats and other craft, and also licenses as operators of motor boats and other craft, subject to the provisions of section 404 of this title, with the same force and effect as if they had been citizens of the United States; any such Indian may be the owner of any such motor boat or other craft, subject to the provisions of the said section, although such Indian be not a citizen of the United States, without depriving said

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motor boat or other craft of the benefits and privileges of a vessel of the United States. Certificates of eligibility for licenses to Indians 46 U.S.C. 238

A certificate under the hand of any officer of the customs in Alaska, to the effect that the applicant for one of the different licenses mentioned in section 237 of this title comes within one of the provisions of said section, shall, together with the affidavit of the applicant to that effect, be sufficient evidence of the fact that said applicant is entitled to the privileges conferred upon said Indians by such section. Oath of licensed officers; perjury; alteration of certificate or

license 46 U.S.C. 231 (R.S. 4445)

Every master, chief mate, engineer, and pilot, who receives a license, shall, before entering upon his duties, make oath before one of the inspectors provided for, to be recorded with the certificate, that he will faithfully and honestly, according to his best skill and judgment, without concealment or reservation, perform all the duties required of him by law. Every applicant for license as either master, mate, pilot, or engineer under the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes shall make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation, before one of the inspectors referred to in this title, to the truth of all the statements set forth in his application for such license. Any person who shall make or subscribe to any oath or affirmation authorized in title 52 of the Revised Statutes and knowing the same to be false shall be deemed guilty of perjury. Every licensed master, mate, pilot, or engineer who shall change, by addition, interpolation, or erasure of any kind, any certificate or license issued by any inspector or inspectors referred to in title 52 of the Revised Statutes shall, for every such offense, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $500 or by imprisonment at hard labor for a term not exceeding three years. Enforcement; effective date; repeal of other laws 46 U.S.C. 1132(f)

This section shall be enforced by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, (46 U.S.C. 1132) and shall take effect ninety days after June 29, 1936. 46 U.S.C. note preceding section 1 Waiver of Compliance With Navigation and Inspection Laws;

Termination Date Act Dec. 27, 1950, ch. 1155, $$ 1, 2, 64 Stat.

1120, provided that: "The head of each department or agency responsible for the administration of the navigation and vessel inspection laws is directed to waive compliance with such laws upon the request of the Secretary of Defense to the extent deemed necessary in the interest of national defense by the Secretary of Defense. The head of such

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