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ways and other sufficient means, convenient to the passengers, for their escape to the upper deck, in case of the vessel sinking or of other accident endangering life; and in the stowage of freight upon such deck, where passengers are carried, gangways or passages, sufficiently large to allow persons to pass freely through them, shall be left open both fore and aft of the vessel, and also to and along the guards on each side. Accommodation of deck passengers 46 U.S.C. 478 (R.S. 4485)

The captain or mate of every steam vessel described in section 481 of this title carrying passengers upon the main deck shall assign to all deck passengers, when taking passage, the space on deck they may

, occupy during the voyage, and such space shall not thereafter be occupied by freight, nor overcrowded by other persons, nor shall freight be stowed about the boilers or machinery, in such a manner as to obstruct or prevent the engineer from readily attending to his duties. Penalty for not providing proper accommodations for passen

gers 46 U.S.C. 479 (R.S. 4486)

For every violation of the provisions of sections 477 and 478 of this title the owners of the vessel shall be punished by a fine of $300. River steamers to be anchored when navigation is unsafe 46 U.S.C. 480 (R.S. 4487)

On any steamer navigating rivers only, when, from darkness, fog, or other cause, the pilot or watch shall be of opinion that the navigation is unsafe, or, from accident to or derangement of the machinery of the boat, the chief engineer shall be of the opinion that the further navigation of the vessel is unsafe, the vessel shall be brought to anchor, or moored as soon as it can prudently be done: Provided, That if the person in command shall, after being so admonished by either of such officers, elect to pursue such voyage, he may do the same; but in such case both he and the owners of such steamer shall be answerable for all damages which shall arise to the person of any passenger, or his baggage, from such causes in so pursuing the voyage, and no degree of care or diligence shall in such case be held to justify or excuse the person in command, or the owners. Liability of master and owners for damage to passengers 46 U.S.C. 491 (R.S. 4493)

Whenever damage is sustained by any passenger or his baggage, from explosion, fire, collision, or other cause, the master and the owner of such vessel, or either of them, and the vessel shall be liable to each and every person so injured, to the full amount of damage if it happens through any neglect, or failure to comply with the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes, or through known defects or imperfections of the steaming apparatus or of the hull; and any person sustaining loss, or injury through the carelessness, negligence,

or willful misconduct of any master, mate, engineer, or pilot, or his neglect or refusal to obey the laws governing the navigation of such steamers, may sue such master, mate, engineer, or pilot, and recover damages for any such injury caused by any such master, mate, engineer, or pilot. Copies of laws governing marine inspection to be kept on pas

senger vessels 46 U.S.C. 492 (R.S. 4494)

Every master or commander of any steam vessel carrying passengers shall keep on board of such vessel at least two copies of the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes, to be furnished to him by the Commandant of the Coast Guard; and if the master or commander neglects or refuses to do so, or shall unreasonably refuse to exhibit a copy of the same to any passenger who asks for it, he shall be liable to a penalty of $20. Placing of certificate for observation by passengers 46 U.S.C. 400 (R.S. 4423)

The original certificate of inspection delivered to the master or owner of a steam vessel shall be placed by such master or owner in a conspicuous place in the vessel where it will be most likely to be observed by passengers and others, and there kept at all times, framed under glass, as evidence of the authority thereby conferred: Provided, however, That where it is not practicable to so expose said certificate, it shall be carried in the vessel in such manner as shall be prescribed by the regulations established by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. Penalty for receiving passengers in absence of unexpired cer

tificate of approval 46 U.S.C. 402 (R.S. 4424)

Whenever any passenger is received on board any steam vessel not having an unexpired certificate of approval or an unexpired temporary certificate of approval placed and kept as required by sections 399 and 400 of this title, such steam vessel shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each offense. Regulation of carriage of explosives or other dangerous articles

on vessels 46 U.S.C. 170 (R.S. 4472)

(1) The word "vessel" as used in this section shall include every vessel, domestic or foreign, regardless of character, tonnage, size, service, and whether self-propelled or not, on the navigable waters of the United States, including its Territories and possessions, but not including the Panama Canal Zone, whether arriving or departing, or under way, moored, anchored, aground, or while in drydock; it shall not include any public vessel which is not engaged in commercial service, nor any vessel subject to the provisions of section 391a of this title, which is constructed or converted for the principal purpose of carrying inflammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk in its own tanks: Provided, That the provisions of

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subsection (3) of this section shall apply to every such vessel subject to the provisions of section 391a of this title, which is constructed or converted for the principal purpose of carrying inflammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk in its own tanks.

(2) The phrase "passenger-carrying vessel" as used in this section, when applied to a vessel subject to any provision of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1929, means a vessel which carries or is authorized to carry more than twelve passengers.

(3) It shall be unlawful knowingly to transport, carry, convey, store, stow, or use on board any vessel fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition, or explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition when subjected for forty-eight consecutive hours to a temperature of one hundred and sixty-seven degrees Fahrenheit, or compositions containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate, or other like explosives.

(4) It shall be unlawful knowingly to transport, carry, convey, store, stow, or use on board any passenger-carrying vessel any explosives such as, and including, liquid nitroglycerin, dynamite, trinitrotoluene, picrates, detonating fuzes, fireworks that can be exploded en masse, or other explosives susceptible to detonation by a blasting cap or detonating fuze, except ships' signal and emergency equipment, and samples of such explosives (but not including liquid nitroglycerin) for laboratory or sales purposes in restricted quantities as may be permitted by regulations of the Commandant of the Coast Guard established hereunder.

(5) It shall be unlawful knowingly to transport, carry, convey, store, stow, or use on board any vessel other than a passenger-carry. ing vessel, any high explosive referred to in subsection (4) hereof except as permitted by the regulations of the Commandant of the Coast Guard established hereunder.

(6) (a) It shall be unlawful knowingly to transport, carry, convey, store, stow, or use (except as fuel for its own machinery) on board any vessel, except one specifically exempted by paragraph (b) of this subsection, any other explosives or other dangerous articles or substances, including inflammable liquids, inflammable solids, oxidizing materials, corrosive liquids, compressed gases, poisonous articles or substances, hazardous articles, and ships' stores and supplies of a dangerous nature, except as permitted by the regulations of the Commandant of the Coast Guard established hereunder: Provided, That all of the provisions of this subsection relating to the transportation, carrying, conveying, storing, stowing, or use of explosives or other dangerous articles or substances shall apply to the transportation, carrying, conveying, storing, stowing or using on board any passenger vessel of any barrels, drums, or other packages of any combustible liquid which gives off inflammable vapors (as determined by flash-point in open cup tester as used for test of burning oil) at or below a temperature of one hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit and above eighty degrees Fahrenheit.

(b) This subsection shall not apply to

(i) vessels not exceeding fifteen gross tons when not engaged in carrying passengers for hire;

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(ii) vessels used exclusively for pleasure;

(iii) vessels not exceeding five hundred gross tons while engaged in the fisheries;

(iv) tugs or towing vessels: Provided, however, That any such vessel, when engaged in towing any vessel that has explosives, inflammable liquids, or inflammable compressed gases on board on deck, shall be required to make such provisions to guard against and extinguish fire as shall be prescribed by the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

(v) cable vessels, dredges, elevator vessels, fireboats, ice breakers, pile drivers, pilot boats, welding vessels, salvage and wrecking vessels;

(vi) inflammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk: Provided, however, That the handling and stowage of any inflammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk shall be subject to the provisions of section 391a of this title.

(7) In order to secure effective provisions against the hazards of health, life, limb, or property created by explosives or other dangerous articles or substances to which subsection (3), (5), or (6) of this section apply

(a) The Commandant of the Coast Guard shall by regulations define, describe, name, and classify all explosives or other dangerous articles or substances, and shall establish such regulations as may be necessary to make effective the provisions of this section with respect to the descriptive names, packing, marking, labeling, and certification of such explosives or other dangerous articles or substances; with respect to the specifications of containers for explosives or other dangerous articles or substances; with respect to the marking and labeling of said containers; and shall accept and adopt for the purposes above mentioned in this subsection such definitions, descriptions, descriptive names, classifications, specifications of containers, packing, marking, labeling, and certification of explosives or other dangerous articles or substances to the extent as are or may be established from time to time by the Interstate Commerce Commission insofar as they apply to shippers by common carriers engaged in interstate or foreign commerce by water. The Commandant of the Coast Guard shall also establish regulations with respect to marking, handling, storage, stowage, and use of explosives or other dangerous articles or substances on board such vessels; with respect to the disposition of any explosives or other dangerous articles or substances found to be in an unsafe condition; with respect to the necessary shipping papers, manifests, cargo-stowage plans, and the description and descriptive names of explosives or other dangerous articles or substances to be entered in such shipping documents; also any other regulations for the safe transportation, carriage, conveyance, storage, stowage, or use of explosives or other dangerous articles or substances on board such vessels as the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall deem necessary; and with respect to the inspection of all the foregoing mentioned in this paragraph. The Commandant of the Coast Guard may utilize the services of the Bureau for the Safe Transportation of Explosives and Other Dangerous Articles, and of such other organizations whose services he may deem to be helpful.

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(b) The transportation, carriage, conveyance, storage, stowage, or use of such explosives or other dangerous articles or substances shall be in accordance with the regulations so established, which shall, insofar as applicable to them, respectively, be binding upon shippers and the owners, charterers, agents, masters, or persons in charge of such vessels, and upon all other persons transporting, carrying, conveying, storing, stowing, or using on board any such vessels any explosives or other dangerous articles or substances: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to prevent the transportation of military or naval forces with their accompanying munitions of war and stores.

(c) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to relieve any vessel subject to the provisions of this section from any other of the requirements of title 52 (secs. 4399 to 4500, inclusive) of the Revised Statutes or Acts amendatory or supplementary thereto and regulations thereunder applicable to such vessel, which are not inconsistent herewith.

(d) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as preventing the enforcement of reasonable local regulations now in effect or hereafter adopted, which are not inconsistent or in conflict with this section or the regulations of the Commandant of the Coast Guard established hereunder.

(e) The United States Coast Guard shall issue no permit or authorization for the loading or discharging to or from any vessel at any point or place in the United States, its territories or possessions (not including Panama Canal Zone) of any explosives unless such explosives, for which a permit is required by the regulations promulgated pursuant to this section, are packaged, marked, and labeled in conformity with regulations prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Commission under section 835 of Title 18, and unless such permit or authorization specifies that the limits as to maximum quantity, isolation and remoteness established by local, municipal, territorial, or State authorities for each port shall not be exceeded. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to limit or restrict the shipment, transportation, or handling of military explosives by or for the Armed Forces of the United States.

(8) Any master, owner, charterer, or agent shall refuse to transport any explosives or other dangerous articles or substances in violation of any provisions of this section and the regulations established thereunder, and may require that any container or package which he has reason to believe contains explosives or other dangerous articles or substances be opened to ascertain the facts.

(9) Before any regulations or any additions, alterations, amendments, or repeals thereof are made under the provisions of this section, except in an emergency, such proposed regulations shall be published and public hearings with respect thereto shall be held on such notice as the Commandant of the Coast Guard deems advisable under the circumstances. Any additions, alterations, amendments, or repeals of such regulations shall, unless a shorter time is authorized by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, take effect ninety days after their promulgation.

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