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cargo, or for the saving of life aboard other vessels, in jeopardy, or when in port or at sea, from requiring the whole or any part of the crew to participate in the performance of fire, lifeboat, or other drills. While such vessel is in a safe harbor no seaman shall be required to do any unnecessary work on Sundays or the following-named days: New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day, but this shall not prevent the dispatch of a vessel on regular schedule or when ready to proceed on her voyage. And at all times while such vessel is in a safe harbor, eight hours, inclusive of the anchor watch, shall constitute a day's work. Whenever the master of any vessel shall fail to comply with this section and the regulation issued thereunder, the owner shall be liable to a penalty not to exceed $500, and the seaman shall be entitled to discharge from such vessel and to receive the wages earned. But this section shall not apply to vessels engaged in salvage operations: Provided, That in all tugs and barges subject to this section when engaged on a voyage of less than six hundred miles, the licensed officers and members of crews other than coal passers, firemen, oilers, and water tenders may, while at sea, be divided into not less than two watches, but nothing in this proviso shall be construed as repealing any part of section 222 of this title. Application of sections 643, 660a, 672, 672a, 673, 689, and 710a of
title 46 to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts 46 U.S.C. 690
No provision of sections 660a, 672a, 689 and 710a of this title and no amendment to sections 643, 672, and 673 of this title made by Act of June 25, 1936, ch. 816, 49 Stat. 1930, shall apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts: Provided, however, That the provisions of sections 643, 672, and 673 of this title as they existed prior to June 25, 1936, shall continue in effect insofar as they are applicable to said vessels or yachts with like force and effect as if sections 660a, 672a, 689 and 710a of this title had not been passed. Nationality of crews 46 U.S.C. 672a
(a) From and after the enactment of this act all licensed officers and pilots of vessels of the United States shall be citizens of the United States, native-born, or completely naturalized.
(b) From and after six months after the enactment of this act upon each departure of any such vessel from a port of the United States, 75 per centum of the crew, excluding licensed officers, shall be citizens of the United States, native-born, or completely naturalized, unless the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall, upon investigation, ascertain that qualified citizen seamen are not available, when, under such conditions, he may reduce the above percentages.
(c) If any vessel while on a foreign voyage is for any reason deprived of the services of any member of the crew, such position or vacancy caused by the promotion of another to such position may be supplied by a person other than defined in subsections (a) and (b) of this section until the first call of such vessel at a port in the United States where such replacements can be obtained.
(d) The owner, agent, or officer of any such vessel, who shall employ any person in violation of the provisions of this section, shall be subject to a penalty of $500 for each offense. Citizenship of officers and crew [on subsidized vessels] 46 U.S.C. 1132
(a) All licensed officers of vessels documented under the laws of the United States, as now required by law, shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized; and upon each departure from the United States of a cargo vessel in respect of which a construction or operating subsidy has been granted all of the crew (crew including all employees of the ship) shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized.
(b) For a period of one year after the effective date of this chapter upon each departure from the United States of a passenger vessel in respect of which a construction or operation subsidy has been granted, all licensed officers shall be citizens of the United States as defined above, and no less than 80 per centum of the crew (crew including all employees of the ship other than officers) shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized, and thereafter the percentage of citizens, as above defined, shall be increased 5 per centum per annum until 90 per centum of the entire crew, including all licensed officers of any such vessel, shall be citizens of the United States, native-born or completely naturalized.
(c) Any member of the crew, not required by this section to be a citizen of the United States, may be an alien only if he is in possession of a valid declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States, or other evidence of legal admission to the United States for permanent residence. Such alien, as above defined, may be employed only in the steward's department on passenger vessels.
(d) If any such vessel (as above defined) while on a foreign voyage is for any reason deprived of the services of any employee below the grade of master, his place or a vacancy caused by the promotion of another to his place may be supplied by a person other than defined in subsections (a) and (b) of this section until the first return of such vessel to a port in the United States.
(e) The owner, agent, or officer of any such vessel who knowingly employs any person in violation of the provisions of this chapter shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined $50 for each person so employed. Space and accommodations for crew; hospital compartments 46 U.S.C. 660_1
On all merchant vessels of the United States the construction of which shall be begun after Mar. 4, 1915, except yachts, pilot boats, or vessels of less than one hundred tons register, every place appropriated to the crew of the vessel shall have a space of not less than one hundred and twenty cubic feet and not less than sixteen
square feet, measured on the floor or deck of that place, for each seaman or apprentice lodged therein, and each seaman shall have a separate berth and not more than one berth shall be placed one above another; such place or lodging shall be securely constructed, properly lighted, drained, heated, and ventilated, properly protected from weather and sea, and, as far as practicable, properly shut off and protected from the effluvium of cargo or bilge water. And every such crew space shall be kept free from goods or stores not being the personal property of the crew occupying said place in use during the voyage.
In addition to the space allotment for lodgings provided in this section, on all merchant vessels of the United States which in the ordinary course of their trade make voyages of more than three days duration between ports, and which carry a crew of twelve or more seamen, there shall be constructed a compartment, suitably separated from other spaces, for hospital purposes, and such compartment shall have at least one bunk for every twelve seamen, constituting her crew, provided that not more than six bunks shall be required in any case.
Every steamboat of the United States plying upon the Mississippi River or its tributaries shall furnish an appropriate place for the crew, which shall conform to the requirements of this section, so far as they are applicable thereto, by providing sleeping room in the engine room of such steamboat, properly protected from the cold, wind, and rain by means of suitable awnings or screens on either side of the guards or sides and forward, reaching from the boiler deck to the lower or main deck, under the direction and approval of the Commandant of the Coast Guard, and shall be properly heated.
All merchant vessels of the United States, the construction of which shall be begun after March 4, 1915, having more than ten men on deck must have at least one light, clean, and properly ventilated washing place. There shall be provided at least one washing outfit for every two men of the watch. The washing place shall be properly heated. A separate washing place shall be provided for the fireroom and engine-room men, if their number exceeds ten, which shall be large enough to accommodate at least one-sixth of them at the same time, and have hot and cold water supply and a sufficient number of washbasins, sinks, and shower baths.
Any failure to comply with this section shall subject the owner or owners of such vessel to a penalty of not less than $50 nor more than $500: Provided, That forecastles shall be fumigated at such intervals as may be provided by regulations to be issued by the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, with the approval of the Coast Guard, and shall have at least two exits, one of which may
be used in emergencies. Inspection of crew quarters 46 U.S.C. 660a
(a) The Coast Guard shall inspect the crew quarters of every American vessel, at least once in each month, or at such times as such vessel shall enter an American port, and shall satisfy itself that such quarters are of the size required by law or regulation
issued thereunder, are properly ventilated and in a clean and sanitary condition, and are equipped with the proper plumbing and mechanical applicances required by law or regulations issued thereunder, and that such plumbing and mechanical appliances are in good working order and condition.
(b) Whenever it shall be found that the crew quarters of any such vessel are not of the size required by law or regulations issued thereunder or are not properly ventilated or are not in a clean and sanitary condition or are not equipped with the proper plumbing and mechanical appliances required by law or regulations issued thereunder, or that such plumbing and mechanical appliances are not in good working order and condition, the appropriate Coast Guard official shall withdraw the certificate of inspection of such vessel and refuse to reissue the same until such improper conditions have been corrected; and the master or other licensed officer of such vessel who shall have willfully or negligently permitted such vessel to be in such improper condition shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $500. Inspection of crew quarters; exception as to unrigged vessels 46 U.S.C. 660b
The provisions of section 660a of this title shall not apply to unrigged vessels except seagoing barges.1 Complaint that vessel is unseaworthy 46 U.S.C. 653 (R.S. 4556)
If the first and second officers under the master or a majority of the crew of any vessel bound on any voyage shall, before the vessel shall have left the harbor, discover that the vessel is too leaky or is otherwise unfit in her crew, body, tackle, apparel, furniture, provisions, or stores to proceed on the intended voyage, and shall require such unfitness to be inquired into, the master shall, upon the request of the first and second officers under the master or such majority of the crew, forthwith apply to the judge of the district court of that judicial district, if he shall there reside, or if not, to some justice of the peace of the city, town, or place for the appointment of surveyors, as in section 654 of this title, taking with him two or more of the crew who, shall have made such request; and any master refusing or neglecting to comply with these provisions shall be liable to a penalty of $500. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts. Proceedings on examination of a vessel 46 U.S.C. 654 (R.S. 4557)
The judge or justice in a domestic port shall, upon such application of the master or commander, issue his precept, directed to three persons in the neighborhood, the most experienced and skillful in maritime affairs that can be procured; and whenever such complaint is about the provisions one of such surveyors shall be a physician or a surgeon of the Public Health Service, if such service is established at the place where the complaint is made. It shall be the duty of such surveyors to repair on board such vessel and to examine the same in respect to the defects and insufficiencies complained of and make reports to the judge or justice, as the case may be, in writing, under their hands or the hands of two of them, whether in any or in what respect the vessel is unfit to proceed on the intended voyage and what addition of men, provisions, or stores, or what repairs or alterations in the body, tackle, or apparel will be necessary; and upon such report the judge or justice shall adjudge and shall' indorse on his report his judgment whether the vessel is fit to proceed on the intended voyage, and, if not, whether such repairs can be made or deficiencies supplied where the vessel then lies, or whether it is necessary for her to proceed to the nearest or most convenient place where such supplies can be made or deficiencies supplied; and the master and the crew shall in all things conform to the judgment. The master or commander shall, in the first instance, pay all the costs of such review, report, or judgment, to be taxed and allowed on a fair copy thereof, certified by the judge or justice. But if the complaint of the crew shall appear upon the report and judgment to have been without foundation, the master or commander, or the owner or consignee of such vessel, shall deduct the amount thereof, and of reasonable damages for the detention, to be ascertained by the judge or justice, out of the wages of the complaining seamen. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts. Refusal to proceed when vessel found seaworthy 46 U.S.C. 655 (R.S. 4558)
1 For definition of term "unrigged vessels” and “seagoing barges” see p. 131,
If, after judgment that such vessel is fit to proceed on her intended voyage, or after procuring such men, provisions, stores, repairs, or alterations as may be directed, the seamen, or either of them, shall refuse to proceed on the voyage, he shall forfeit any wages that may be due him. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts. Appointment of inspectors by consul in foreign port 46 U.S.C. 656 (R.S. 4559)
Upon a complaint in writing, signed by the first and second officers or a majority of the crew of any vessel, while in a foreign port, that such vessel is in an unsuitable condition to go to sea because she is leaky or insufficiently supplied with sails, rigging, anchors, or any other equipment, or that the crew is insufficient to man her, or that her provisions, stores, and supplies are not or have not been during the voyage sufficient or wholesome, thereupon, in any of these or like cases the consul shall cause to be appointed three persons of like qualifications with those described in section 654 of this title who shall proceed to examine into the cause of complaint and who shall proceed and be governed in all their proceedings as provided by said section. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts.