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between virtue and happiness, - between duty and advantage, - between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity ; — since we ought to be no less persuaded, that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself has ordained; -and since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally staked, on the experiment intrusted to the hands of the American people.
“ Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgment to decide, how far an exercise of the occasional power delegated by the fifth article of the Constitution is rendered expedient, at the present juncture, by the nature of objections which have been urged against the system, or by the degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of undertaking particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the public good : for I assure myself that whilst you carefully avoid every alteration which might endanger the benefits of a united and effective government, or which ought to await the future lessons of experience; a reverence for the characteristic rights of freemen, and a regard for the public harmony, will sufficiently influence your deliberations on the question how far the former can be more impregnably fortified, or the latter be safely and advantageously promoted.
“ To the preceding observations I have one to add, which will be most properly addressed to the House of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will therefore be as brief as possible. When I was first honored with a call into the service of my country, then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I should renounce every pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance departed. And being still under the impressions which produced it, I must decline, as inapplicable to myself, any share in the personal emoluments which may be indispensably included in a permanent provision for the executive department; and must, accordingly, pray that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which I am placed, may, during my continuance in it, be limited to such actual expenditures as the public good may be thought to require.
“ Having thus imparted to you my sentiments, as they have been awak. ened by the occasion which brings us together, I shall take my present leave; but not without resorting once more to the benign Parent of the human race, in humble supplication, that, since he has been pleased to favor the American people with opportunities for deliberating in perfect tranquillity, and dispositions for deciding with unparalleled unanimity, on a form of government for the security of their union and the advancement
of their happiness ; so his divine blessing may be equally conspicuous in the enlarged views, the temperate consultations, and the wise measures, on which the success of this government must depend.
In their answer to this speech, the Senate say ; “ The unanimous suffrage of the elective body in your favor, is peculiarly expressive of the gratitude, confidence, and affection of the citizens of America, and is the highest testimonial at once of your merit and their esteem. We are sensible, sir, that nothing but the voice of your fellow citizens could have called you from a retreat, chosen with the fondest predilection, endeared by habit, and consecrated to the repose of declining years. We rejoice, and with us all America, that, in obedience to the call of our common country, you have returned once more to public life. In you all parties confide; in you all interests unite; and we have no doubt that your past services, great as they have been, will be equalled by your future exertions; and that your prudence and sagacity as a statesman will tend to avert the dangers to which we were exposed, to give stability to the present government, and dignity and splendor to that country, which your skill and valor as a sol. dier so eminently contributed to raise to independence and to empire."
“ The Representatives of the people of the United States,” says their answer, “ present their congratulations on the event by which your fellow citizens have attested the preëminence of your merit. You have long held the first place in their esteem. You have often received tokens of their affection. You now possess the only proof that remained of their gratitude for your services, of their reverence for your wisdom, and of their confidence in your virtues. You enjoy the highest, because the truest honor, of being the first magistrate, by the unanimous choice of the freest people on the face of the earth.
“ We well know the anxieties with which you must have obeyed the summons from the repose reserved for your declining years, into public scenes of which you had taken your leave for ever. But obedience was due to the occasion. It is already applauded by the universal joy which welcomes you to your station. And we cannot doubt that it will be rewarded with all the satisfaction, with which an ardent love for your fellow citizens must review successful efforts to promote their happiness.
“ This anticipation is not justified merely by the past experience of your signal services. It is particularly suggested by the pious impressions under which you commence your administration, and the enlightened maxims by which you mean to conduct it. We feel with you the strongest obligations to adore the invisible hand which has led the American people through so many difficulties; to cherish a conscious responsibility for the destiny of republican liberty; and to seek the only sure means of preserving and
recommending the precious deposit in a system of legislation founded on the principles of an honest policy, and directed by the spirit of a diffusive patriotism.
“In forming the pecuniary provisions for the executive department, we shall not lose sight of a wish, resulting from motives which give it a peculiar claim to our regard. Your resolution, in a moment critical to the liberties of your country, to renounce all personal emolument, was among the many presages of your patriotic services, which have been amply fulfilled; and your scrupulous adherence now to the law then imposed on yourself, cannot fail to demonstrate the purity, whilst it increases the lustre, of a character which has so many titles to admiration.
“ Such are the sentiments with which we have thought fit to address you. They flow from our own hearts, and we verily believe, that, among the millions we represent, there is not a virtuous citizen whose heart will disown them.
“ All that remains is, that we join in your fervent supplications for the blessing of Heaven on our country; and that we add our own for the choicest of these blessings on the most beloved of her citizens."
II. EXECUTIVE GOVERNMENT.
Salary. ANDREW JACKSON, Tennessee, President, $25,000. John C. CALHOUN,
South Carolina, Vice-President, 5,000. The following are the principal officers in the executive departments of the government, who all hold their offices at the will of the President.
Salary. Edward Livingston, Louisiana, Secretary of State, $6,000. Louis McLane, Delaware, Secretary of the Treasury, 6,000. Lewis Cass,
6,000. Levi Woodbury, New Hampshire, Secretary of the Navy, 6,000. William T. Barry, Kentucky,
Post-Master General, 6,000. Roger B. Taney, Maryland, Attorney General,
3,500. The eleventh presidential term of four years began on the 4th of March, 1829; and will expire, with the 22d Congress, on the 3d of March, 1833.
Regulations in relation to Patents.
The Acts of Congress which relate particularly to the granting of Patents for inventions and improvements, are those of February 21st, 1793, and April 17th, 1800.
Patents may be obtained for 6 any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter; or for any new and useful improvement on any art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, not known or used before the application.” (Act of 1793, Sec. 1.)
All citizens of the United States, and aliens who have resided therein for two years, are entitled to take out patents for their inventions or improvements.
Joint inventors or improvers are entitled to a joint patent, but neither can claim one separately.
If any inventor or discoverer should die intestate before an application be made for a patent, his legal representatives may apply for the patent iu trust for the heirs at law, otherwise in trust for the devisees.
The term for which a patent is granted is fourteen years, and may be estended by a special act of Congress ; but a patent for an improvement on any thing previously patented, can have no influence on, and, consequently, cannot renew or prolong, the original grant.
In applying for a patent, it is necessary to attend to every legal form. The following is the mode of application.
Every inventor, before he presents his petition, shall pay into the Treasury of the United States, thirty dollars, for which he will be furnished with duplicale receipts, one of which he shall deliver to the Secretary of State, when he presents his petition ; and the money thus paid shall be in full for the sundry services to be performed in the office of the Secretary of State, consequent to such petition. This petition must be addressed to the Secretary of State, and may be in the following or a similar style :
To the Hon.
Secretary of State of the United States. The petition of A. B. of in the county of
and state of respectfully represents : That your petitioner has invented a new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, [or a new and useful improvement on any art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter,] in known or used before his application; the advantages of which he is desirous of securing to himself and his legal representatives: he therefore prays that letters patent of the United States may be issued, granting unto your petitioner, his heirs, administrators, or assigns, the full and exclusive right of making, constructing, using, and vending to others to be used, his said improvement, (art, invention, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, fic.] agreeahly to the acts of Congress in such case made and provided; your petitioner having paid thirty dollars into the Treasury of the United States, and complied with all other provisions of the said act.
A. B. The specification or description of the machine, art, discovery, or invention, must be given in clear and specific terms, distinguishing it from all other inventions; and describing the whole in such a manner, as to comprehend, not only the form and construction, if a machine, but also the mode of using the same; and if it be only an improvement on a certain machine, it ought to be so described; and, as this specification enters into, and forms part of the patent, it must be without any references to a model or drawing, and must be signed by
the applicant or applicants, before two witnesses. Nothing must be added that would defeat the avowed object of the invention; and no more must be claimed than is new, and invented or discovered by the patentee; although it may be proper and necessary to describe the whole machine.
When a patent is to be taken out for the application of an old instrument or machine, to some new purpose, that fact must be distinctly stated; and where the patent is for the improvement of some machine, previously patented by oth
The following, or a similar oath or affirmation, taken before any person qualified to administer an oath, by the applicant, must be subjoined to the specification, if he be a citizen of the United States.
State of On this day of - 18-, before the subscriber, a Justice of the Peace in and for the said county, personally appeared the aforenamed A. B. and made solemn oath (or affirmation) according to the law, that he verily believes himself to be the true and original inventer or discoverer of the art, [machine, invention, or improvement, composition of matter, &c.] above specified and described, for (mention here the object or intention) and that he is a citizen of the United States.
Just. Peace. If he be not a citizen, the following addition must be made to the claration that he verily believes himself to be the true and original inventer, or discoverer of the art, &c. : “ And that the same hath not, to the best of his knowledge or belief, been known or used, either in this or any foreign country.” that he has resided in the United States for two years and upwards.”
It is not necessary that the time of residence should immediately precede the application.
The specification must be accompanied by a good drawing, in perspective, of the whole machine, or apparatus, where the nature of the case admits of drawings; or with specimens of the ingredients, and of the composition of matter, sufficient in quantity for the purpose of experiment, where the invention is of a composition of matter. And such inventor shall, moreover, deliver a model of his machine, provided the Secretary shall deem such model to be necessary. It is requisite in giving a drawing of the machine, to give also sectional drawings of the interior when the machine is complex ; and every drawing should be accompanied with explanatory references. If the machine be complex, a model will likewise be necessary, not only to render it plain and comprehersible to a common capacity, but also to prevent infringements of rights.
When there are two applicants at the same time, for a similar patent, the law has provided for the appointment of three arbitrators, one by each party, and one by the Secretary of State. Where there are more than two applicants, and they do not concur in the appointment of arbitrators, the whole may be appointed by the Secretary of State, and their award is 6 final as respects the granting of the patent.” (Act of 1793, Sect. 9.) But in order to justify a reference, each party must have complied with all the legal requirements; still, however, the final remedy is that pointed out in the 10th Sec. of the Act of 1793, which provides, that " within three years after issuing the patent, upon an oath or affirmation being made before the judge of the district court, where the patentee, bis executors, administrators, or assigns reside, that the patent was obtained surreptitiously, or upon false suggestion, the court upon motion made, if the matter alleged appears to be sufficient, may grant rule to show cause why process shall not issue to repeal the patent.” All persons violating patent rights, "shall forfeit and pay to the patentee, his