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EDUCATION. In provinces of the empire containing a population of 20,572,750 inhabi. tants, there were (as stated in a publication at Vienna, Jan. 1, 1832) 24,931 national schools; 21,801 lay teachers ; 10,252 ecclesiastical teachers; and 1,993,552 pupils.

EMPEROR AND IMPERIAL FAMILY.

FRANCIS (the last Emperor of Germany and the first Emperor of Austria), Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Lombardy, and Venice, and President of the German Confederation ; b, at Florence, Feb. 12, 1768; succeeded his father Leopold II., as Emperor of Germany, July 7, 1792 ; declared hiinself Hereditary Emperor of Austria, Aug. 11, 1804, and resigned his title of Emperor of Germany, Aug. 6, 1806; m. (I.) Jan. 6, 1788, Elizabeth of Wurtemberg, who died 1790; m. (II.) Aug. 14, 1790, Maria Theresa, daughter of Ferdinand IV. of Sicily, who died April 13, 1807; m. (III.) Jan. 9, 1808, Maria Louisa Beatrix, daughter of the Duke of Modena, who died April 7, 1816; m. (IV.) Nov. 10, 1816, CAROLINE AUGUSTA, daughter of the king of Bavaria, b. Feb. 8, 1792:— Issue by the 2d marriage:

1. Maria Louisa, b. Dec. 12, 1791 ; m. Ap. 2, 1810, to the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte : -— created Duchess of Parma May 30, 1814.

2. FERDINAND, Prince Imperial; b. April 19, 1793; m. Feb. 27, 1831, to Anne daughter of the late King of Sardinia.

3. Maria Clementina, b. March 1, 1798 ; in. July 28, 1817, Leopold, Prince of Salerno.

4. Carolina Ferdinanda ; b. April 8, 1801 ; m. Oct. 7, 1819, to Frederick Augustus, Prince Regent of Saxony.

5. Francis Charles Joseph, Viceroy of Bohemia ; b. Dec. 7, 1802; m. Nov. 4, 1824, Sophia, sister of the king of Bavaria.

6. Maria Anne Frances : b. June 8, 1804.

Brothers of the Emperor.

1. Archduke Charles, field-marshal, governor and captain-general of Bohemia ; b. 1771.

2. Archduke Joseph, Palatine, governor, and captain-general of Hun. gary ; b. March 9, 1776.

3. Archduke Anthony, G. M. of the Teutonic Order; b. Aug. 31, 1779. 4. Archduke John, General of Cavalry ; b. Jan. 20, 1782.

5. Archduke Renier, Viceroy of Lombardy and Venice; b. Sept. 30, 1783.

6. Archduke Louis, field-marshal and director-general of artillery ; b. Dec. 13, 1784.

XIII. SWITZERLAND.

STATISTICAL TABLE.

23,150

122 Zug

Cantons. Prot. Cath. Jews. Total Pop. Sq. m. Capitals. Popula

tion. Berne 309,620 47,900 357,660 3,635 Berne 20,500 Zurich 223,2401 910 140 224,150 954 Zurich 10,313 Lucerne

53 105,517 105,600 662 Lucerne 6,055 Uri 13,930 13,930 646 Altorf

1,623 Schweitz

36,396 36,396 466 Schweitz 4,798 Underwalden

23,150 265 Sarnen 3,500 Glarus 25,818 3,285

29,103 392 Glarus 4,000 Zug

14,710
14,710

2,809 Friburg 5,220 72,410

77,660 805 Friburg

6,164 Soleure 4,340 51,000 58,340 255 Soleure 4,471 Bâle

49,590 5,760 55,3501 228 Bâle 16,215 Schaffhausen 27,840 210

28,050 169 Schaffhausen 7,000 Appenzell

57,510

57,510 170 Appenzell 3,000 St. Gall 99,300 58,100 157,700 1,102 St. Gall 10,300 Grisons 50,000 33,000 8:3,000 2,395 Coire

3,350 Aargou 79,800 71,400 1,700 152,900 763 Arau

3,500 Thurgau 72,191 17,654

89,845 253 Frauenfeld 1,600 Ticino 103,950 103,950 1,134 Lugano

3,602 Vaud

175,850 3,030 178,880 1,487 Lausanne 10,200 Valais

77,570
77,570 2,035 Sion

2,334 Neufchatel 54,450 2,190 56,640 350 Neufchatel 4,715 Geneva 37,700 15,800 60 53,560 100 Geneva 25,000

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GOVERNMENT. Each Canton is an independent republic. In some of the Cantons the form of government is a democracy; but in most of them, an oligarchy. But for the general security, the Cantons are confederated together, and the regulation of affairs which concern the whole confederation, is intrusted to a Diet composed of deputies from the 22 cantons, who assemble commonly on the first Monday in July at Zurich, Berne, or Lucerne, the place of meeting being changed in rotation every two years ; and the deputy of the Canton in whose capital the Diet assembles, presides. In 1833 and 1834, the Diet meets at Zurich; in 1835 and 1836, at Berne; and in 1837 and 1833, at Lucerne.

XIV. SPAIN.

Spain, a mountainous country, comprising the most of a great peninsula lying in the southwest of Europe, is advantageously situated, and two centuries ago it was the most formidable power in Christendom; but it is now comparatively weak, and is backward with respect to agriculture, manufactures, the arts, and education.

It is divided into 14 large provinces, and subdivided into 31 smaller ones.

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New Castile

Old Castile

277,812 1,330 Madrid
48.5,203 8.863 Toledo
157,333 1,970 Guadalaxara
382,577 11,410 Cuenca
267,210 7,620 Ciulad Real
617,762 7,752 Burgos
257.537

4,118

Soria
221 379 3,502 Segovia
153,479/ 2,600 Avila
311,755 5,943 Leon
153,482 1,751 Palencia
126,581 1,992 Toro
213,607 3,272

Valladolid
92,821

1,606 Zamora 272,982 1,128 Salamanca 464,565 3,725

Oviedo 1,585,419 16,066 Santiago 556,780 14,478 Badajoz

Seville

Leon

Madrid
Toledo
Guadalaxara
Cuenca
La Mancha
Burgos
Soria
Segovia
Avila
Leon
Palencia
Toro
Valladolid
Zamora
Salamanca
Asturias
Galicia
Estremadura
Seville
Cordova
Jaen
Granada
Murcia
Arragon
Valencia
Catalonia

Navarre
S Biscay

Guipuscoa
Alava
Balearic Isles

Asturias
Galicia
Estreinadura

201,000 15,600 7,000 7,000 10,000 12,000

5,000 12,000 4,000 5,000 10,000

9,000 32,000

7,000 14,000 10,000 28,000 12,000 91.000 70,000 46,000 18,000 80,000 35,000 55,000 66,000 120,000 15,000 15,000 9,000 7,000 30,000

970,087 9,080 { Cadiz

Andalusia

Murcia
Arragon
Valencia
Catalonia
Navarre
Biscay

327,256 4,202

Cordova 276,905 3,236

Jaen 1,097,098 9,720 Granada 498,192 7,957

Murcia 856,219 14,882 Saragossa 1,255,095 7,764

Valencia 1,116,461 12,111 Barcelona 288,244 2,475 Pampeluna 144,875 1,280

Bilboa 135,838 628 Si. Sebastian

92,807 1,093 Vittoria 242,893 1,775

Palma

Balearic Isle

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ECCLESIASTICS. The whole number of ecclesistics, in Spain, in 1826, is stated at 146,696 of whom 61 were archbishops and bishops ; 2,363 canons; 61,327 men in convents, and 31,400 women in conrents.

POPULATION OF THE FOREIGN PossESSIONS OF SPAIN. In Asia, the Philippine Islands, &c.

2,500,000 In Africa, the Canary Islands, &c.

210,000 704,487 284,957

In America, Porto Rico,

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GOVERNMENT. Spain is governed by an absolute, hereditary monarch, though several unsuccessful attempts have been made to establish a constitutional gov. ernment. It has been governed by the Bourbon Family since 1700. The succession was limited to the male line till April 8, 1830, when, by a royal ordinance, females were rendered capable of succeeding to the throne.

KINGS OF THE HOUSE OF BOURBON.

Philip V.,
[Louis,
Ferdinand VI.,

accession 1700

Charles III.,
do. 1724] Charles IV.,
do. 1746 Ferdinand VII.,

accession 1759

do. 1788 do. 1808

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FERDINAND VII., King of Spain and the Indies ; Most Catholic; b. Oct. 14, 1784; succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his father Charles IV., March 19, 1808; m. (I.) Sept. 29, 1816, Isabella Maria, Infanta of Portugal, b. May 19, 1797, d. Dec. 26, 1818: m. (II.) Maria Josephina, niece of the King of Saxony, d. May, 1829: m. (III.) Dec. 4, 1829, MARIA CHRISTINA, daughter of the King of the Two Sicilies: — Issue; Maria Isabella, Infanta, b. Oct. 12, 1830.

Brothers and Sister of the King. Charles Isidore, Infant; b. March 29, 1788; m. Frances of Portugal, Sept. 29, 1816.

Maria Isabella, widow of Francis I. of the Two Sicilies; b. June 6, 1789.

Francis, de Paul; b. March 10, 1794; m. June 12, 1819, to Louisa Charlotte of the Two Sicilies.

XV. PORTUGAL.

Portugal, the most westerly state of Europe, is a small kingdom, once distinguished as a maritime power, but its prosperity long since declined ; and it is now one of the most backward European countries with regard to agriculture, manufactures, education, and the arts.

STATISTICAL TABLE.

Provinces.

Pop. 1826. Sq. m.

Capitals.

Population.

Estremadura,

745,000 8,837 LISBON, Beira,

940,000 8,586 Coimbra, Minho,

810,000 2,862 S Braga, Tras-os-Montes,

285,000 3,055 Oporto Alentejo,

330,000 9,738 Miranda, Algarve,

104,000 1,808 Evora,

Faro,
Total, 3,214,000|34,886
Population of Portuguese Colonies in Africa,
Do.

do. do. in Asia,

239,872 15,210 14,428 80,000

500 10,000 8,400

1,057,000

575,900

Total 1,632,900

KING AND ROYAL FAMILY.

MIGUEL, King of Portugal and the Algarves; 2d son of John VI. O Portugal; b. Oct. 26, 1802; affianced at Vienna, Oct. 29, 1826, by proxy to his niece Maria de Gloria, who was declared Queen of Portugal ; took the oath Feb. 26, 1828, as Regent of Portugal; was proclaimed King, by the Cortes, June 26, 1828, and formally assumed the title of King of Portugal and the Algarves, July 4, 1828.

[MARIA DE GLORIA, eldest daughter of Pedro, ex-emperor of Brazil, eldest son of John VI. of Portugal; b. April 4, 1819; declared Queen of Portugal in consequence of the abdication of her father, May 2, 1826. Pedro having become Emperor of azil, under the conditions of the Constitution of that country, by an act of May 2, 1826, abdicated the throne of Portugal in favor of his daughter, promulgated a Constitution for the kingdom with a Cortes, and appointed his brother Don Miguel regent, during the minority of his daughter. Miguel, after having sworn to the Constitution, renounced it, assumed absolute sovereignty in his own right, and has since reigned as King of Portugal.]

Sisters of Miguel.

1. Maria Theresa, Princess of Beira; b. April 29, 1793; widow of Peter Charles of Spain. - 2. Maria Frances ; b. April 22, 1800; m. Sept. 29, 1816, to Charles Isidore of Spain. - 3. Isabella Maria ; b. July 4, 1801.4. Maria de l'Assomption ; b. July 25, 1805.—5. Maria Anne Jesus ; þ. Dec. 23, 1806; m. Dec. 1, 1827, to the Marquis de Loulé.

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